Steinbeck's propaganda and correspondent work was only a small piece in the giant war effort nearly the entire nation was engaged in. Similar to World War I , but to a much greater extent, the economy of the United States became centered around the war. Entire industries switched from creating consumer goods to building war materials, new industries developed and thrived in support of the war, and nearly four million men and women were finally back to work in jobs ranging from agriculture to the building of war machinery. As was the case during World War I, and to an even greater extent than during the Great Depression , the federal government stepped in and took control of large parts of the economy. Prices on many things were frozen and legislation was passed to try to prevent inflation.
Shoemakers extended Pussy s reader life of footwear by resoling and re-heeling them. Bylon owners could only purchase a limited amount of gas depending on their circumstance; a corresponding sticker labeling their car's category went on their windshield. We must have 17 million tons of scrap Rubber nylon war effort in order to keep the steel mills running at full capacity through the winter. The rising popularity of slacks helped, but most women resorted Rubber nylon war effort bare legs, sometimes with ankle socks for more casual wear. This set off such a shopping frenzy for silk stockings that most retailers set a purchase limit of two or three pairs. The Need to Sacrifice Get in the Scrap! It will be returned to you upon your request when you leave. Mary Ann Reed's entire oral history interview: Your browser does not support the audio element. Every citizen, military or civilian, was to do their part. Effoort Hoang interviewer : Oh my goodness!
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Deena Clark, Civilian Defense right Rubber nylon war effort, and Tech. Researchers at I. On Rubber 15,the War Production Board launched an official collection program for silk and nylon hosiery. Young people experienced childhood that included carrying out their civic duty above all else. Learn more: About the Landmarks Program. The construction of a military nglon used one-half ton of rubber; a tank needed about one ton and a battleship, 75 tons. They discovered in that Buna S butadiene and styrene polymerized wae an emulsionwhen compounded with carbon black, was significantly more durable than natural rubber. Next, show the class some rubber bands, Rubber nylon war effort place them with the foil. The Tit means synthetic rubber program was a remarkable scientific and engineering achievement. Because methyl rubber was an expensive and inferior imitation, production was abandoned at the war's end.
Drives were very popular throughout the second World War, where such items as scrap metal, rubber and clothing would be collected and used towards the war effort.
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- America raised money for the war effort in World War I and II by using propaganda, getting more jobs, and the biggest one was to raise taxes.
- Nearly two centuries into the industrial age there is still a healthy demand for silk, cotton and wool.
During World War I, visitors to Pennsylvania Avenue were greeted by an unusual sight on the White House lawn: a flock of several dozen sheep.
President Woodrow Wilson purchased the animals in as part of a scheme to cut down on maintenance costs during wartime. The grass-chomping livestock acted as roving lawnmowers and fertilizer, allowing White House groundskeepers to enlist in the armed forces. One ram named Old Ike even became a minor celebrity for his grumpy disposition and insatiable appetite for discarded cigar butts. The same month the United States entered World War I, Yale economist Irving Fisher famously argued that the barley used in brewing beer could be put to better use baking bread to feed American troops.
Others asserted that alcohol was a luxury that gobbled up much-needed resources and impaired job performance in wartime factories. These calls were fueled as much by a yearning for prohibition as they were by patriotism, but they were ultimately successful in winning restrictions on booze.
In and , measures were enacted limiting everything from the sale of alcohol around military bases and munitions plants to the amount of grain allotted to beer brewers.
Other countries made similar efforts to keep their citizens clearheaded. Britain shortened pub hours and made it illegal to buy drinks for other patrons, and King George V tried to set an example by swearing off alcohol for the duration of the war. In Russia, Czar Nicholas II took the more extreme step of banning the sale and production of vodka outright. During both World War I and II, many countries strictly rationed foods such as meat, sugar, butter and canned goods.
That was bad news for American women, many of whom had been crazy for nylon stockings ever since they hit shelves in the first batch of 4 million sold out in only two days. Nylons effectively vanished from stores around , and patriotic women lined up to donate their old hosiery so it could be repurposed as parachutes and powder bags.
Few things are more German than sausage, but during World War I, the Central Powers briefly outlawed its production to support the war effort. The bratwurst ban had its origins in the construction of zeppelins—colossal airships that were used in reconnaissance and bombing campaigns over Britain. Since each zeppelin required the intestines of thousands of cows to make its hydrogen gas bags, the Germans were forced to cut back on sausage-making in both the fatherland and the other territories under their control.
Butchers, meanwhile, were required to hand over any cow intestines they had to the government. In , the British government circulated a pamphlet about how to care for household pets during wartime. In the span of only one week, as many as , pets were euthanized by their owners or by animal shelters. The London Zoo, meanwhile, had all of its poisonous animals killed to prevent them from escaping in the event of a bomb attack. The pet cull continued after the beginning of the Blitz, but humane societies later stepped in to assist with care and evacuation.
One London shelter, the Battersea Dogs and Cats Home, took in as many as , animals over the course of the war. Many other nations soon followed suit, including the United States in Daylight saving was widely regarded as a wartime measure, however, and many countries reverted to standard time after the fighting ended.
It would take more than 20 years and another World War before the practice became permanent. In January , the U. The rule was intended to save on wax paper and metal. Since pre-sliced bread required more wrapping than a whole loaf to keep it from going stale, the government assumed they could easily conserve paper and curb demand for metal bread slicer parts by having people cut it themselves at home.
The public response proved how wrong they were. Bakeries argued they had more than enough supplies on hand to meet demands, and housewives criticized the law in the media. Secretary of Agriculture Claude R. But if you see something that doesn't look right, click here to contact us!
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It was introduced commercially in The committee, headed by financier Bernard M. The money raised may be used for a variety of projects, such as building or renovating schools. Maximoff and Ivan Ostromislensky, had resulted in s patents for emulsion polymerization of butadiene and also of styrene. What poster or posters viewed today illustrate that idea? The rubber companies had the technology and the responsibility to build the plants to produce synthetic rubber. Awards Recognizing and celebrating excellence in chemistry and celebrate your achievements.
Rubber nylon war effort. Still there, or gone to get coffee???
8 Unusual Wartime Conservation Measures - HISTORY
Sat : 10 a. Sun : Closed. Making Do: Rationing. Poster for the U. Department of Agriculture promoting victory gardens Photo from the Library of Congress. Poster distributed to gasoline stations and garages to educate motorists on need for fuel rationing. Photo from the Library of Congress. Poster promoting commuting and working together as part of the war effort. This Resource Requires Authentication! Maximize image Restore image. Collection of Scrap Materials Housing Crunch.
The war effort consumed so many resources that shortages of food, clothing, gas and rubber products like tires and rubber bands became commonplace. Rationing of a variety of essential items from leather to gasoline to ketchup and coffee was instituted by the federal government to keep inflation down, preserve necessary goods for the war effort and to fairly distribute items in short supply.
Although he promised "an adequate and healthy diet" for all Americans, he also stressed that the military would need a quarter of all the food produced by the country, including half its canned fruits and vegetables.
Individuals were issued ration books with sheets of perforated stamps to obtain household staples such as sugar, meat and gas. To prevent hoarding, stamps could only be redeemed for a specific length of time.
Meat was in very bad supply. It all went to the military. You just didn't have much meat. And back in those days, everybody had a cow. Audio Clip: Your browser does not support the audio element. Gwen Atwood Uzzell's entire oral history interview: Your browser does not support the audio element. Download file. Sugar rationing began in January , just weeks after war was declared. Initially, everyone was limited to just a half-pound a week, although the ration limit was increased somewhat within a few months.
At that time, it came in white blocks; yellow dye had to be kneaded into it in order to give it a butter-like appearance. But it was soft and spreadable, an advantage over butter.
Lou Ringer: Oh. The butter was so cute. We would get the box of—the yellow went to war, so you were given your own little packet of yellow. You would get what looked like a pound of lard, and you would work this yellow into it, so your butter would be yellow. Lou Ringer's entire oral history interview: Your browser does not support the audio element.
Lou Ringer's Oral History Transcript. Coffee drinkers could buy only a pound every five weeks, which meant restraining themselves to less than a cup of coffee a day. A caffeine fix meant rebrewing the grounds. They tried mutton and turkey, which were never rationed. They experimented with corn syrup and molasses as sweeteners. Interest swelled in less popular vegetables such as eggplant and squash. Casseroles were very common. Baked meatloaf became standard fare, as well as canned baked beans served with frankfurters or Spam.
Wickard urged citizens to cultivate vegetable gardens — dubbed victory gardens — as a means of supplementing the nation's distressed food supply. Government agencies, 4-H groups and public schools widely promoted the home gardens; it was practically unpatriotic to not have one.
Flower beds, backyards and window boxes soon became home to vegetables. In , Americans planted Automobile registration fell by more than , in This was followed by the order to limit civilian tire sales to 35, per month, less than 1 percent of the 4 million a month typically produced. Soon enough, the OPA banned driving for pleasure altogether. I remember one time that the family was driving to Austin in our Chevrolet.
We couldn't buy new cars during that time. Maybe it was a '38 Chevrolet. Anyway, I remember it was old. We were not happy—the girls were not very happy with it. But we were driving to Austin and one of the tires blew out, so my dad got out and put the spare on and we went several more miles and it blew out. And you couldn't just go to a store and buy a tire. You had to have a special certificate to get one. So we drove into Austin on the rim.
We just—we didn't have any choice because there was no other way to get there. And there was a song about someone in an airplane who had been shot in the war. It was called "Coming in on a Wing and a Prayer. My father almost lost his mind. Mother finally turned around and told us we'd better be quiet. The next day he had to go to the rationing board and get a special certificate to get a tire.
The tire—they sold retreaded tires; they were not new rubber. But anyway, he was only able to get one and we had to just hope we didn't have another blowout. So that was an adventure. Mary Ann Reed's entire oral history interview: Your browser does not support the audio element.
Now it's not unusual to go 40, or 50, miles without a flat tire and all. But then you were having blowouts left and right and then having to try to find a tire and an inner tube and all like that. They had devised a great big sort of semi-rigid patch to put on the inside of the tire when there was a hole in it so that the inner tube didn't poke out through a hole and get punctured.
It was called a boot. People nowadays don't have the faintest idea what that was. Lyman Reed's entire oral history interview: Your browser does not support the audio element.
Lyman Reed's Oral History Transcript. Car owners could only purchase a limited amount of gas depending on their circumstance; a corresponding sticker labeling their car's category went on their windshield. According to Home Front America: Popular culture of the World War II era, the categories were: "A, non-essential for war driving; B, for commuters who drive to work but do not use their vehicles on the job; C, salesmen and delivery driving-work related; E, emergency vehicles which included clergy, police, firemen, press photographers, and journalists; T, truckers, work related; X, congressmen.
This 'X' category required no rationing at all and naturally brought widespread criticism and griping. People relied on thrift, cooperation and ingenuity to make do. They patched up old cars and tires. They carpooled. They turned to trains, so much so that railroads made a profit on passenger traffic in for the first time in 15 years. Each person was limited to three pairs per year and even then, shoe quality was poor.
Shoemakers extended the life of footwear by resoling and re-heeling them. They could even evoke the illusion of a seam down the back of a leg using a line drawn with eyebrow pencil.
Bailey in The Home Front. We didn't have leather shoes because all the leather went to the servicemen so they could have shoes. I had a pair of high heels and the soles were cardboard laughs and the uppers were a sort of canvas.
Gwen Atwood Uzzell's Oral history Transcript. And with three daughters in the family, I don't think my parents got a pair of new shoes during the whole war laughs because our feet would grow and we'd have to use their stamps for shoes. But I'm always amazed to see how many shoes my grandchildren have because we had one pair. Possibly, after the war, we were able to have two. Vivi Hoang interviewer : Did that mean, since you were the oldest, did that mean your younger sisters would get hand-me-downs?
MAR: Oh yes. Although I think we pretty well wore our shoes out. They would make—they had some fabric shoes that they made that you didn't have to have stamps for. But if you wore them out in the wet grass, they'd fall apart, so they must have been glued together. If you were fortunate enough to have a relative or a boyfriend or somebody in the service, they could go to the commissary, maybe, and get you a pair of nylon hose.
Oh, claps hands together that was a big treasure. We had to wear rayon hose. Now, I don't know whether you know what rayon is but we'd pull them on—'course, we had garter belts to fasten them to—and when you sat down in a chair like this, with your knees bent, when you got up, well, the knees were still bent like you were still sitting down laughs.