Sex Roles. The present study investigated adult behavior while interacting with a three-month-old infant under conditions in which the child was introduced as a boy, as a girl, or with no gender information given. Gender labels did not elicit simple effects, but rather interacted significantly with the sex of the subject on both toy usage and physical contact measures. There was a stronger tendency for both male and female adults to utilize sex-stereotyped toys when the child was introduced as a girl. Most of the findings, however, reflected a differential response of men and women to the absence of gender information.
Journal of Phonetics. View Article Google Scholar. Substantial evidence has shown that IDS influences the cognitive development of infants, promoting language acquisition, inclusive of lexical comprehension [ 40 ], word recognition [ 39 ], and segmentation in a sentence e. Inf Mental Health J ; — More extensive experience with women may lead to an earlier emergence of the category knowledge of female faces because infants are exposed Adult female infants multiple exemplars of the relevant attributes for categorization, e. Sometimes a wet nurse is hired to feed the infant, although this is rare, especially Kingston and prostitute developed countries. However, female infants compared to male infants looked longer to the 0.
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The effect of calcium on iron absorption. Get Email Updates. Prometheus Books. Communicating femlae occurs when the flow of CSF Teen up blocked after it exits the ventricles. Variant Sexuality: Research and Theory. Unlike other inhibitors of iron absorption, calcium might reduce the bioavailability of both nonheme and heme iron. In Robert E. Shunt systems are imperfect devices. Infanticide increases a male's reproductive success when Adult female infants takes over a new troop of females. An additional unfants is that infantilism is an erotic identity disorder where the erotic fantasy is centered on the self rather than on a sexual partner and results from an erotic targeting location error where the erotic target was children yet becomes inverted.
- Paraphilic infantilism , also known as autonepiophilia,  psychosexual infantilism ,  and adult baby syndrome  is a sexual fetish that involves role-playing a regression to an infant -like state.
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At five months of age, it seems that babies prefer to listen to the sounds of their peers to the cooing of their mother. Researchers at the University of Quebec tested babies on their preference for different speakers by using a specialized speech synthesizer.
They were able to simulate the effects of the human vocal tract—the vocal cords, tongue and mouth—to create vowels with differing pitch and resonance, representing vowels produced by vocal tracts of different sizes. Simply by turning their heads, the babies indicated which sounds they preferred. The results were striking. And there is no denying that baby talk is important in child development.
Babies who hear more high-pitched baby talk from their caregivers have larger vocabularies at two years of age and higher IQs at age seven. But while babies prefer to listen to adult speech when it is produced at a higher pitch , a preference for infant vocalizations over and above this might have important implications for very early language learning.
Authors of the study propose that it might motivate them to vocalize more in the first months of life, which could promote the transition to babble production just a few months later. Earlier onset of stable babbling leads to earlier word production and a larger vocabulary in the first two years of life. Perception of consonants produced in their own babble may help infants filter the speech stream into something more manageable.
Studies have shown that infants prefer to listen to words that match the sounds produced in their babble. Studies of deaf babies have shown that they do babble but they start babbling much later than hearing infants. Without feedback on their own babble production, deaf infants typically cease to babble after a few months. These studies have allowed us to piece together a more comprehensive picture of how human language emerges, taking into account the importance of infant vocalization long before they produce their first word.
Babies learn from the adult world around them, but they also learn from their own early vocalizations. These new findings suggest that this begins much earlier than we previously thought. Perhaps language production does not start with words or even babble, but with vocalizations that begin long before the first speech-like sounds are produced.
This article was originally published on The Conversation. Read the original article. Skip to navigation Skip to content. Babble teaches babies to talk But while babies prefer to listen to adult speech when it is produced at a higher pitch , a preference for infant vocalizations over and above this might have important implications for very early language learning.
Symptoms of hydrocephalus vary with age, disease progression, and individual differences in tolerance to the condition. Habitation ; J Am Diet Assoc ;S J Nutr ; While the success of treatment with shunts varies from person to person, some people recover almost completely after treatment and have a good quality of life.
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Early multisensory perceptual experiences shape the abilities of infants to perform socially-relevant visual categorization, such as the extraction of gender, age, and emotion from faces. Here, we investigated whether multisensory perception of gender is influenced by infant-directed IDS or adult-directed ADS speech.
Six-, 9-, and month-old infants saw side-by-side silent video-clips of talking faces a male and a female and heard either a soundtrack of a female or a male voice telling a story in IDS or ADS.
Consistent with earlier work, infants displayed advantages in matching female relative to male faces and voices. Moreover, the new finding that emerged in the current study was that extraction of gender from face and voice was stronger at 6 months with ADS than with IDS, whereas at 9 and 12 months, matching did not differ for IDS versus ADS. The results indicate that the ability to perceive gender in audiovisual speech is influenced by speech manner. Our data suggest that infants may extract multisensory gender information developmentally earlier when looking at adults engaged in conversation with other adults i.
Overall, our findings imply that the circumstances of social interaction may shape early multisensory abilities to perceive gender. This is an open access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License , which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original author and source are credited.
Data Availability: All relevant data are within the paper and its Supporting Information files. Competing interests: The authors have declared that no competing interests exist. Human faces provide multisensory inputs to infants, exposing them not only to visual information but also to the voice and language of their caregivers.
This perceptual experience shapes early multisensory abilities that are critical for the development of social categories related to vocalizing and talking human faces. One social category to which infants have extensive exposure is gender. The ability of humans to process male and female faces has been widely studied over the last two decades e. Adults reliably and rapidly identify facial gender, even when relying only on individual facial features, such as eyebrows, jaw, chin, or mouth [ 1 — 3 ].
In infants, the ability to categorize face gender develops between three months and one year of age e. Even though some research suggests that infants form categories for both female and male faces [ 5 — 8 ], other studies point to a developmental asymmetry in the acquisition of gender categories: when infants are presented with a category of male faces, they subsequently prefer female over novel male faces, but when infants are presented with a category of female faces, they do not subsequently prefer male over novel female faces [ 7 ].
The asymmetry has been further shown to reflect a spontaneous preference for female over male faces when the primary caregiver is female e.
These studies also suggest that infants develop more structured representations for female faces than for male faces. The processing advantages for female over male faces are in turn believed to reflect experiential differences between female and male faces.
Even though gender processing is mainly based on visual properties of the face, vocal cues also play an important role. Adults perceive faces and voices as coherent entities e. Although infants perceive audiovisual coherence of speech syllables as early as 2 to 4 months of age [ 17 — 19 ], their ability to use audio-visual correspondences to respond to gender emerges in the second half of the first year of life, and consistent with the work on visual categories, is restricted to female faces [ 20 , 21 ].
For example, the work of Walker-Andrews et al. However, to ensure perfect synchrony between faces and voices, Walker-Andrews et al. This procedure made it difficult to tease apart whether infants genuinely matched faces and voices based on gender information or whether they made the match based on idiosyncratic relations between faces and voices.
This latter possibility is supported by a more recent study demonstrating that 6-month-old infants are able to link idiosyncratic cross-modal identity cues of unfamiliar persons [ 23 ]. Subsequent studies have reported that the emergence of audio-visual perception of gender can vary from 6 months to 8 months to even later for a review, see [ 11 ], [ 19 — 22 , 24 ].
The specific timing of the emergence of the ability to perceive the multisensory coherence of gender might depend on the different types of visual and auditory stimuli used across the different studies and the methodology of the tasks [ 11 ]. Some studies investigating perception of multisensory gender coherence have presented dynamic faces [ 19 , 20 , 22 ], whereas others have relied on static images [ 21 ].
Use of dynamic faces provides a more ecologically valid approach to investigate multisensory perception of gender, as our natural environment is surrounded with dynamic multisensory cues [ 25 ]. Dynamic facial cues also seem to play a critical role in the way faces are encoded [ 26 ] and recognized [ 27 ]. Moreover, dynamic representations of faces seem to influence facial scanning, prompting infants to shift their fixations to different facial features [ 26 ].
Multiple fixation shifts on major facial areas are likely to benefit gender processing given that the visual cues for gender can be found throughout the face [ 1 — 3 ]. The auditory stimuli used to investigate multisensory perception of gender have also varied across different studies. Some studies have presented isolated vowels [ 19 ], whereas others have played recordings of fluent and continuous speech [ 21 , 22 , 24 ]. The latter may facilitate the detection of the gender of the speaker via additional cues such as intonation, stress, duration, respiratory patterns, and vocal breathiness [ 28 , 29 ].
It is additionally possible that the manner of speech infant- or adult-directed influences the perception of multisensory gender coherence. In daily life, parents or siblings interact with infants using infant-directed speech IDS , varying at both prosodic and linguistic levels [ 30 ]. IDS is characterized by better articulation, higher pitch, slower rhythm, many breaks, and the use of special words e. Several studies have shown that the manner of speech has an influence on the cognitive [ 36 ] and social development of infants [ 37 ] with IDS promoting, for example, language acquisition, inclusive of word segmentation and lexical comprehension e.
Based on this prior evidence, it could be reasoned that IDS might also facilitate the extraction of gender information from face and voice. However, even though IDS facilitates lexical learning and word segmentation e. Indeed, the high pitch of IDS, which brings male voices closer to the daily frequencies of female voices, might even impede the ability of infants to perceive multisensory gender coherence.
Consistent with this suggestion, Trainor and Desjardins [ 41 ] demonstrated that the high pitch of IDS negatively affected vowel discrimination in 6- to 7-month-old infants. The authors concluded that rather than being a facilitator of vowel learning, the primary role of high pitch in IDS is to attract attention and communicate intention and emotion. Using dynamic stimuli and exaggerated prosodic nursery rhymes characteristic of IDS, Hillairet de Boisferon et al.
Infants viewed two side-by-side video clips of a man and a woman reciting a nursery rhyme and heard a synchronous male or female soundtrack. Infants did not associate audible and visible gender attributes until the age of 9 months, and only for female faces. The authors interpreted these findings as evidence that a combination of different factors e.
Because Hillairet de Boisferon et al. The experiment consisted of four s trials, during which infants saw two side-by-side silent video-clips of actors a male and a female reciting a nursery rhyme; they were the same video-clips used by Hillairet de Boisferon et al.
Infants participated in only one condition, either IDS or ADS, and heard a male voice on half of the trials and a female voice on the other half of the trials. If the infants could detect the gender of the audio-visual correspondence, we expected them to look longer at the face whose gender matched the gender of the accompanying voice than at the face that did not match it.
We decided to use dynamic video recordings rather than static faces because dynamic stimuli provide observers with richer and ecologically more valid representations of the sorts of events that infants experience in their daily lives e. We reasoned that if IDS affects the extraction of gender from face and voice in the same way that it affects word segmentation and lexical comprehension, then the perception of multisensory gender coherence would emerge earlier with IDS than with ADS.
However, if IDS draws attentional resources to the prosodic features and the linguistic content of the speech rather than to the gender of the talking face [ 20 ], then the perception of multisensory gender coherence might emerge later with IDS than with ADS.
Moreover, the high-pitched intonation characteristic of IDS might bring male voices closer to the usual daily life frequencies of female ADS, which might make it more difficult for infants to match an IDS utterance to either a male or female face.
An additional expectation was that the perception of multisensory gender coherence might be specific to female faces. This prediction is supported by results from previous intersensory matching studies [ 20 , 21 ], and findings that infants exhibit a spontaneous preference for female over male faces [ 9 , 10 ], as well as findings that infants possess a more advanced category representation for female than male faces [ 10 , 11 ].
Infants were healthy, full-term participants, recruited from the maternity of the Centre Hospitalier Universitaire of Grenoble in France. They were all Caucasians and living in a French speaking environment. We used the same visual stimuli as those used by Hillairet de Boisferon et al.
Instead, we presented new soundtracks that are described below. The video recordings consisted of six Caucasian adult faces 3 females reciting a nursery rhyme in French while maintaining a neutral facial expression. During the video recordings, actors were asked to look directly at the video camera and to recite at the same tempo as a model whose video was played as a template before the recordings.
The videos in each pair were edited to ensure that they started with the same opening of the mouth [ 20 ]. The faces were recorded against a green background and neither of the actors wore gender-specific visual information, such as makeup or jewelry. The faces subtended a visual angle of As in previous studies e.
The content of the soundtracks differed from the nursery rhyme told by the actors in the videos i. This was done to ensure that infants were genuinely representing gender across face and voice i. We registered the audio-recordings with a high-quality audio microphone in a special soundproof recording room.
Je vois le soleil qui brille. I see the sun shining. I hope it is also the case for you. You are a beautiful baby. The semantic content of both stories was very similar. In order to have s length stories, the second story included four sentences instead of three as in the first story. The number of words in each sentence was, however, similar. Twenty French-speaking adults were asked to categorize the stories as adult or infant-directed. The utterances were acoustically analyzed using Praat [ 44 ].
Pitch level was computed as the mean of the fundamental frequency f0 values for each utterance as a whole. Pitch span was computed by subtracting the minimum from the maximum f0 value for each utterance as a further index of pitch variation.
The acoustic analyses of the voices heard by the infants in our study revealed the following fundamental frequencies: For IDS, the male voice varied between and Hz and the female voice varied between and Hz. For ADS, these fundamental frequencies ranged between 87 and Hz for the male voice and between and Hz for the female voice. When converted to semitones st , the difference between the maximum f0 value for the male voice in IDS and the maximum for the female voice in ADS was less than 3 st.
Average pitch level, pitch minimum, pitch maximum, and pitch span of the fundamental frequencies Hz of the ADS and IDS male and female voices. Average pitch level, pitch minimum, pitch maximum, and pitch span of the semitones st of the ADS and IDS male and female voices. Infants were seated on the lap of a parent in a dimly illuminated room, 60 cm away from a inch computer screen.
Parents were asked not to intervene, interact, or speak with their infant during the experiment. All parents signed a written consent form for their infant prior to the experiment. The experiment consisted of four s trials for each condition i. On each trial, infants were presented with two side-by-side silent video-clips of faces one male and one female reciting a nursery rhyme.
The faces were separated by a cm gap. We used the same video-clips on Trials 1 and 3, and on Trials 2 and 4, but with switched left-right locations of the faces, so that each face was seen on the right and the left side of the screen Fig 1. The side of gender presentation male or female was counterbalanced across infants on the first trial and reversed on the following trials on Trials 3 and 4, see Fig 1.
A soundtrack with a female or a male voice telling a story either in IDS or ADS was played at the same time as the video-clips.