Special Offers. Bad breath, sometimes called halitosis, can be an embarrassing problem for anyone. However, older adults are more prone to bad breath due to their susceptibility to a number of medical and dental conditions. But how to prevent bad breath starts with understanding the source of the offending odor. Here are some of the common causes of bad breath in older individuals and tips that can help you keep your breath fresh and your mouth healthy — no matter your age.
Med Princ Pract. Endocrinological aspects In: van Steenberghe D, editor. Tests may be done to confirm the presence of halitosis by measuring the strength of wimen breath on a predefined scale, and by using instruments to detect specific compounds related Halitosis and older women halitosis. Lowcost escort services in germany halitophobia, the patient is worried about having continuous oral malodor. The bacteria then release a sulfur gas, which smells bad. Sulfur passes blood circulation through the intestinal tract and felt as an odor during exhalation from the lungs [ 1213 ]. Otolaryngol Head Neck Surg. Denmark - Danmark. They should be well aware of the origin, the detection and especially of the treatment of this pathology.
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New Articles. Thank you Dr. Sinus infection or sinusitis Sinusitis is an inflammation of the nasal sinuses. Now I feel Halitoiss the smell is delivered by the air I exhale via nose also. It is really worst, is there any natural remedies for it? They form part of your immune system, making antibodies and white blood cells to attack germs inside your mouth. I am a young guy who will be turning 21 by this come March, Machines fucking pusssy In constant fears and upset. Respiratory tract infections such as pneumonia or bronchitis, chronic sinus infections, postnasal drip, diabetes, chronic acid reflux, and liver or kidney problems can all be underlying causes for bad breath. The dentist may scrape the back of the tongue and smell the scrapings wlmen this area can often be a ane of the aroma. These materials can build up and eventually calcify hardenforming tonsil stones tonsoliths. Remedies and treatment for Halitosis and older women stones: No treatment. Halitossis production naturally decreases with age, and medications and chronic diseases can also lead to dry mouth.
The good news is there are ways to help prevent it.
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- And bad breath can be a sign of serious disease.
- Bad breath is a common problem in life that is in most cases temporary and easily remedied with good dental hygiene.
Almost everyone experiences bad breath once in a while. But for some people, bad breath is a daily problem, and they struggle to find a solution. Other causes of temporary halitosis include some beverages including alcoholic drinks or coffee and tobacco smoking. Some people may not be aware of their own halitosis and learn about it from a relative, friend, or coworker, causing some degree of discomfort and distress.
Bad breath can originate both inside and outside of the mouth. Bad breath is typically caused by bacteria present on the teeth and debris on the tongue. A visit with a dentist may help rule out periodontal disease and identify any mouth problem that could be contributing to bad breath.
Tonsillitis, respiratory infections such as sinusitis or bronchitis, and some gastrointestinal diseases may be responsible for a small number of cases of bad breath. Advanced liver or kidney disease and uncontrolled diabetes can also lead to unpleasant breath.
In these cases, a person is likely to experience significant symptoms beyond bad breath, and should seek medical attention. Sometimes people think they have bad breath, even when their breath is objectively fine. People with pseudo-halitosis respond well to reassurance, and may benefit from speaking with a therapist or psychiatrist who has expertise in the field.
A person complaining of bad breath can be initially evaluated by a primary care physician PCP. The doctor will begin with a thorough medical and dental history and an oral exam.
Tests may be done to confirm the presence of halitosis by measuring the strength of bad breath on a predefined scale, and by using instruments to detect specific compounds related to halitosis. The intensity of malodor is usually assessed by the doctor smelling the air that the person breathes out through the nose or mouth, or from judging the odor of a tongue scraping, a length of dental floss, or a dental appliance such as a night guard.
Your PCP may refer you to a dentist if there is evidence of dental or gum problems, which is the cause in the majority of people with bad breath.
Visits with other medical specialists are warranted when an underlying medical problem requires attention. Thanks for sharing this blog! You have written it clearly and precisely. Bad breath is seriously a worse thing.
Many people suffer from bad breath and it may negatively affect the relationship as you have mentioned in your blog. The unpleasant breath could spoil the appearance of the person. Since I love reading, I have read many articles. One of the articles from Oral health Net was worth reading regarding bath breath.
They have mentioned facts and tips which are very interesting! Bad breath. Although it could be the result of tooth decaying which we usually unrecognized.
The symptoms of tonsillitis include: White or yellow spots of pus on the tonsils A sore throat — pain in the throat is sometimes severe, especially when swallowing, and may last more than 48 hours. Hi there, Sorry to hear that. Apart from decomposing food in the mouth and dental problems that may subsequently develop, bad breath also arises with :. I am a young guy who will be turning 21 by this come March, Hello, Great article you wrote types of bad breath and causes.
Halitosis and older women. 1. Tooth Decay
Risks of Hiring a Private Caregiver. If your senior loved one has bad breath and is finding it difficult to cure, you can help him or her by determining the cause of the condition. Palm Beach, FL, elderly care professionals have put together a list of the top 5 causes of bad breath in the elderly. Saliva breaks down food, moisturizes the mouth, and prevents the buildup of bacteria that can cause bad breath.
Saliva production naturally decreases with age, and medications and chronic diseases can also lead to dry mouth. Over-the-counter remedies such as Biotene may alleviate symptoms of dry mouth and help prevent halitosis. Many seniors use dentures or partials to replace missing teeth. Prolonged use of dentures can cause the delicate tissue inside the mouth to become inflamed and can even lead to infections like denture stomatitis, which can cause bad breath.
Bad breath may be a sign of a serious health condition. If you notice these symptoms, encourage your loved one to visit the doctor as soon as possible. They may forget to brush and floss their teeth or lack the physical ability to do so independently. You can help your loved one stay on top of his or her oral hygiene by providing a gentle reminder, hiring Palm Beach, FL, respite care to help with brushing, or purchasing brushes and flossers designed for people with limited mobility.
Gingivitis and periodontitis are leading causes of bad breath. These conditions develop when plaque and bacteria build up between the teeth and under the gums.
If your loved one needs help with dental hygiene or other grooming tasks, reach out to Home Care Assistance. Chronic halitosis needs to be investigated thoroughly for an underlying cause especially in a person who is conscientious about their dental hygiene.
However, in many instances the problem is simply a matter of good dental hygiene. Dental health is dependent on many factors and the following measures may be able to reduce the impact of bad breath. This includes :. Did you know? Keeping physically active can slow the ageing process. Exercise is the mantra to keep young and feel good. Take Our Poll Do you think obesity is considered a health threat among the senior population? Monday, October 28th, Follow us on:.
Get the latest and accurate info on senior health. Bad Breath Halitosis in the Elderly. Effect of Anesthesia on the Elderly.
A Current Approach to Halitosis and Oral Malodor- A Mini Review
Halitosis, bad breath or oral malodour are all synonyms for the same pathology. Halitosis has a large social and economic impact. For the majority of patients suffering from bad breath, it causes embarrassment and affects their social communication and life.
Moreover, halitosis can be indicative of underlying diseases. Only a limited number of scientific publications were presented in this field until Ever since, a large amount of research is published, often with lack of evidence.
Therefore, dentists and periodontologists are the first-line professionals to be confronted with this problem. They should be well aware of the origin, the detection and especially of the treatment of this pathology. In the case of halitophobia, psychiatrical or psychological problems may be present. Bad breath needs a multidisciplinary team approach: dentists, periodontologists, specialists in family medicine, ear—nose—throat surgeons, internal medicine and psychiatry need to be updated in this field, which still is surrounded by a large taboo.
This article describes the origin, detection and treatment of halitosis, regarded from the different etiological origins. The amount of epidemiological research on bad breath is limited, since this topic is still a large but underestimated taboo. There are several reasons for this lack of scientific data.
First, there is the difference in cultural and racial appreciation of odours, as for patients as well as for investigators. Men suffered more from the problem than women, especially when they were over 20 years.
Man and women seem to suffer in the same proportions, whereas women seem to seek faster for professional help than men. These results suggest that this oral malodour is caused by tongue coating in the younger generation and by periodontitis with tongue coating in the older cohorts.
This large variety of data suggest that there are large shortcomings in the methodology of the overall research projects.
Therefore, a mechanical detection method should be used as golden standard for bad breath research. Microbial degradation in the oral cavity is the main cause of oral malodour.
Due to this process, volatile sulphur compounds VSCs are formed. These VSCs are mainly produced by Gram-negative anaerobic oral bacteria. They seem play a less important role in the expression of bad breath. Most of these components are produced in the proteolytic degradation process of peptides. The most predominant substrates in this VSC production are cysteine, cystine and methionine. The involved bacteria in these metabolic processes are shown in Table 1.
Adapted from Persson et al. Most of the responsible microorganisms in halitosis are involved in periodontitis. So, there is a positive correlation between bad breath and periodontitis: the depth of the periodontal pockets is positively correlated to the height of the VSC concentrations in the mouth. This surface is large and has a high retention capacity due to the rough and papillary structure. The bacterial composition on the dorsum of the tongue seems to be identical to the subgingival plaque.
Adapted from Goldberg et al. This phenomenon is the most common cause of bad breath. Hence, the tongue surface seems to be an important reservoir in the recolonisation of tooth surfaces. Daily scraping or brushing of the tongue can help to reduce the substrata for putrefaction, rather than to reduce the bacterial load. Moreover, tongue cleaning improves taste sensation. Due to the reduced saliva production during night, anaerobic putrefaction will increase, causing the typical morning breath.
This is a non-pathological form of halitosis. The problem will disappear as soon as oral hygiene measures are taken. Snel et al. This phenomenon needs to be further investigated to understand its impact. Poor oral hygiene, dental plaque, dental caries, accumulation and putrefaction of food remnants and unclean acrylic dentures worn at night or not regularly cleaned or with rough surfaces contribute to bad breath.
The latter was recently concluded in a systematic review, stating that, although isolated reports, chemicals and brushing appear to be more effective than placebo in the reduction of plaque coverage and microbial counts of anaerobes and aerobes on complete denture bases.
Gingivitis and periodontitis are the main causes of the problem. This disease is caused by opportunistic bacterial infections occurring in individuals with stress, malnutrition, insufficient oral hygiene, smoking or systemic diseases. Patients with a dry mouth 0. Moreover, other salivary factors can influence the development of malodour: an increase of the salivary pH by the intake of amino acids, and a change in the oxygen depletion a reduction stimulates the metabolism of Gram-negative bacteria, responsible for higher VSC production.
A recent study in elderly found the accumulation of bacterial plaque on the tongue, oral dryness, burning mouth, overnight denture wear, and lower educational levels to be significantly related to oral malodour.
Therefore, dry mouth is probably a condition of systemic or extrinsic origin. Saliva seems to undergo chemical changes with aging.
Dry mouth symptom can be treated with hydration and sialagogues or with artificial saliva substitutes. Stomatitis, intra-oral neoplasia, exposed tooth pulps with necrotic content , extraction wounds with blood cloth or purulent discharges , or crowding of teeth favouring food entrapment can also be involved. Therefore, when a clinical investigation is performed, attention should first be paid to the tonsils: size, structure invaginations, coating and hyperaemia and presence of tonsilloliths.
Acute tonsillitis is the most important ENT origin. Mostly, infections with streptococci play a role, but also viral infections e. When acute tonsillitis takes place more than three times a year, a tonsillectomy can be considered. The presence of tonsilloliths represents a fold increased risk of abnormal VSC levels. A tonsillectomy is only performed when oral hygiene measures do not result in improvement of the breath.
Postnasal drip caused by mucus of the paranasal sinuses contacting the dorsum of the tongue is largely involved. Also a cleft palate can be the origin of bad breath. This can be caused by tumor rescetions, radiotherapy or overuse of decongestives or cocaine. Bacterial sinusitis develops mostly out of acute viral sinusitis. Streptococcus pneumonia and Haemophilus influenza are the main responsible bacteria.
On radiological or computed tomography CT images, fading is perceived. When purulent mucous is produced, a typical odour appears. In these cases, the spotted bacteria are: Peptostretococcus spp. Since those bacteria are able to produce VSCs, a clear association to halitosis is available.
The treatment of dentogenic problems eventual with the additional use of antibiotics decreases the anaerobic pathogens, even as the odour problem. The gastro-intestinal tract can only indirectly haematogenic influence bad breath. A majority of patients and physicians still abusively believes that halitosis originates from the stomach.
Only in specific cases, this is the origin of malodour. When a Zenker's diverticulum is present, a chronic unpleasant odour appears. Also bleeding of the oesophagus can cause a musty odour.
When severe regurgitation is determined, halitosis will be present. When the diagnosis is missed, carcinomatic deterioration can occur. Infections with Helicobacter pylori can cause peptic ulcers.
Moreover, it is suggested that H. When gastrointestinal pathology was treated, most of the halitosis complaints disappeared. The latter suggests that halitosis can have a gastro-intestinal origin. In a recent comparative study among children in Turkey, it was concluded that there was a difference between the rate of H. The results, however, were not statistical significant.
In general, it can be concluded that more research has to be done to clarify a clear correlation between stomach problems by H. It was suggested that this physical sign may be an indication for barium studies. Preti et al. Renal disease in the form of chronic renal failure is associated with high blood urea nitrogen levels and low salivary flow rates. Peritoneal dialysis decreased the problem.
Also pancreatic insufficiencies can cause oral bad odours as found by Feller and Blignaut in Diabetic ketoacidosis leads to a typical breath odour.
Several metabolic disorders in the bowels, like trimethylaminuria cause a specific fishy odour. According to Whittle et al. Trimethylaminuria is a disorder in which the volatile, fish-smelling compound, trimethylamine accumulates and is excreted in the urine, but it is also found in the sweat and breath.
Trimethylamine is formed by bacteria in the mammalian gut from reduction of compounds such as trimethylamine- N -oxide and choline. Treatment with antibiotics to control bacteria in the gut, or activated charcoal to sequester trimethylamine, may also be beneficial. If this condition is present, the extra-oral origin should be determined, because the latter requires medical investigation and support in therapy.
The liver can be involved in oral malodour. Fetor hepaticus is an expression of hepatic encephalopathy. Endocrinology can also contribute to halitosis. Not only the hormonal cycle seems to influence the mouth odour, but also a lot of other intestinal diseases. Recently, van Steenberghe mentioned a whole list of metabolic and endocrinological aspects in correlation to oral malodour.