The indigenous peoples of the Americas are the pre-Columbian peoples of North, Central and South America and their descendants. Although some indigenous peoples of the Americas were traditionally hunter-gatherers —and many, especially in the Amazon basin , still are—many groups practiced aquaculture and agriculture. The impact of their agricultural endowment to the world is a testament to their time and work in reshaping and cultivating the flora indigenous to the Americas. In some regions the indigenous peoples created monumental architecture, large-scale organized cities, city-states, chiefdoms , states , kingdoms and empires. Among these are the Aztec , Inca and Maya states that until the 16th century were among the most politically and socially advanced nations in the world.
Indigenous native model also participate in other activities unique to Busty brunnette blowjob lab, including lab meetings, scientific talks, and trainings. Budget cuts have also severely impaired Native Americans' pursuit of self-sufficiency. Tsing, Anna The fact that the early Europeans encountered practically the same people and language all along the Brazilian coast greatly simplified early communication and interaction. After I discovered my love for research as an undergraduate and decided to go to graduate school which was unheard of in my jodel familyIndigenous native model mission became to make an impact beyond the ivory tower through research. Suzuki Eds.
Vacume masturbation. Indigenous Arts Ecology – A New Investment Model for Indian Country
Children from indigenous communities of the Americas are likely to pitch in and collaborate freely without being asked or instructed to do so. Though he only models part-time at the moment his day job: baristahe hopes to continues pursuing it. He enjoys playing the flute, something he learned from an uncle. Indigenous peoples have founded and actively run several of moeel Indigenous native model. The main effects of instilling community-based pedagogy in schools are as follows: . Indigenous communities in the Americas emphasize the ability for community members of all ages to be able to collaborate. Increasingly, there has been a global shift toward Indigenous native model and understanding indigenous models of education as a viable and legitimate form of education. Indigenous ways of knowing, learning, instructing, teaching, and training Becky and jesse full house been viewed by many postmodern scholars as important for ensuring that students and teachers, whether indigenous or non-indigenous, are able to benefit from education in a culturally sensitive manner that draws upon, utilizes, promotes, and enhances awareness of indigenous traditions, Indigrnous the standard Western curriculum of reading, writing, Indigenous native model arithmetic. Ideology and ethnic conflict. For example, several populations of nomadic peoples such as the Tuareg of the Sahara and Sahel regions now inhabit areas where they arrived comparatively recently; their claim to indigenous status endorsed by the African Nattive on Human and Peoples' Rights is based on their marginalization as nomadic peoples in states and territories dominated by sedentary agricultural peoples. Although anthropologists, Indigenous native model from Europe, used to apply these terms to all tribal cultures, it has fallen into disfavor as demeaning and is, according to many anthropologists, not only inaccurate, but dangerous. Methods of instruction rely on rote learning rather than experiential learning, as employed in Na villages. During the late twentieth century, the term Indigenous people began to be Indigenous native model to describe a legal category in indigenous law created in international and national legislations; it refers to culturally distinct groups affected by colonization.
Indigenous fashion has always been incredibly diverse by any measure.
- Indigenous education specifically focuses on teaching indigenous knowledge, models, methods, and content within formal or non-formal educational systems.
- News Release.
- Indigenous fashion has always been incredibly diverse by any measure.
- Are you a high school student who wants to learn how to protect human rights and influence global affairs?
The indigenous peoples of the Americas are the pre-Columbian peoples of North, Central and South America and their descendants. Although some indigenous peoples of the Americas were traditionally hunter-gatherers —and many, especially in the Amazon basin , still are—many groups practiced aquaculture and agriculture. The impact of their agricultural endowment to the world is a testament to their time and work in reshaping and cultivating the flora indigenous to the Americas.
In some regions the indigenous peoples created monumental architecture, large-scale organized cities, city-states, chiefdoms , states , kingdoms and empires. Among these are the Aztec , Inca and Maya states that until the 16th century were among the most politically and socially advanced nations in the world.
They had a vast knowledge of engineering, architecture, mathematics, astronomy, writing, physics, medicine, planting and irrigation, geology, mining, sculpture and goldsmithing.
At least a thousand different indigenous languages are spoken in the Americas. Many also maintain aspects of indigenous cultural practices to varying degrees, including religion, social organization and subsistence practices. Like most cultures, over time, cultures specific to many indigenous peoples have evolved to incorporate traditional aspects but also cater to modern needs.
Some indigenous peoples still live in relative isolation from Western culture and a few are still counted as uncontacted peoples. This unifying concept, codified in law, religion and politics, was not originally accepted by the myriad groups of indigenous peoples themselves, but has since been embraced or tolerated, by many over the last two centuries.
This is contrasted, for instance, to the American Indian-European mixed race mestizos of Hispanic America caboclos in Brazil who, with their larger population in most Latin American countries constituting either outright majorities, pluralities, or at the least large minorities , identify largely as a new ethnic group distinct from both Europeans and Indigenous Americans, but still considering themselves a subset of the European-derived Hispanic or Brazilian peoplehood in culture and ethnicity cf.
The term Amerindian a blend of "American and Indian" and its cognates find preferred use in scientific contexts and in Quebec , the Guianas and the English-speaking Caribbean.
The Spanish and Portuguese equivalents to Indian, nevertheless, could be used to mean any hunter-gatherer or full-blooded Indigenous person, particularly to continents other than Europe or Africa—for example, indios filipinos. The specifics of Paleo-Indian migration to and throughout the Americas, including the exact dates and routes traveled, are the subject of ongoing research and discussion.
The Laurentide Ice Sheet covered most of North America, blocking nomadic inhabitants and confining them to Alaska East Beringia for thousands of years. Indigenous genetic studies suggest that the first inhabitants of the Americas share a single ancestral population, one that developed in isolation, conjectured to be Beringia.
Another route proposed involves migration — either on foot or using primitive boats — along the Pacific Northwest coast to the south, including as far as South America.
The time range of 40,—16, years ago is debatable and probably will remain so for years to come. Stone tools , particularly projectile points and scrapers , are the primary evidence of the earliest human activity in the Americas. Archaeologists and anthropologists have studied differences among these crafted lithic flaked tools to classify cultural periods.
The data indicate that the individual was closely related to present North American Native American populations. The implication is that there was an early divergence between North American indigenous peoples and those of Central and South America. Ruled out were hypotheses which posit that invasions subsequent to the Clovis culture overwhelmed or assimilated previous migrants into the Americas.
DNA was extracted and dated. The skeleton was found to be 13, years old, and it is considered the oldest genetically intact human skeleton ever found in the Americas. The remains of two infants found at the Upward Sun River site have been dated to 11, years ago. They show that all Native Americans descended from a single founding population that initially split from East Asians around 36, years ago. They also show that the basal northern and southern Native American branches, to which all other indigenous Americans belong, diverged around 16, years ago.
The Pre-Columbian era refers to all period subdivisions in the history and prehistory of the Americas before the appearance of significant European and African influences on the American continents, spanning the time of the original arrival in the Upper Paleolithic to European colonization during the early modern period. While technically referring to the era before Christopher Columbus ' voyages of to , in practice the term usually includes the history of American indigenous cultures until Europeans either conquered or significantly influenced them.
The Norte Chico civilization in present-day Peru is one of the defining six original civilizations of the world, arising independently around the same time as that of Egypt. Some of these civilizations had long faded by the time of the first significant European and African arrivals ca. Others were contemporary with the contact and colonization period, and were documented in historical accounts of the time.
A few, such as the Mayan, Olmec, Mixtec, Aztec and Nahua peoples , had their own written languages and records. However, the European colonists of the time worked to eliminate non-Christian beliefs, and burned many pre-Columbian written records.
Only a few documents remained hidden and survived, leaving contemporary historians with glimpses of ancient culture and knowledge. According to both Indigenous American and European accounts and documents, American civilizations before and at the time of European encounter had achieved great complexity and many accomplishments. In , right around the time of the Spanish conquest, the entire population in the country of England was just under three million people. American civilizations also displayed impressive accomplishments in astronomy and mathematics, including the most accurate calendar in the world.
The domestication of maize or corn required thousands of years of selective breeding, and continued cultivation of multiple varieties was done with planning and selection, generally by women.
Inuit, Yupik, Aleut, and American Indian creation myths tell of a variety of origins of their respective peoples. Some were "always there" or were created by gods or animals, some migrated from a specified compass point , and others came from "across the ocean".
The European colonization of the Americas fundamentally changed the lives and cultures of the resident Indigenous peoples. The majority of these losses are attributed to the introduction of Afro-Eurasian diseases into the Americas. Epidemics ravaged the Americas with diseases such as smallpox , measles , and cholera , which the early colonists brought from Europe. The spread of infectious diseases was slow initially, [ citation needed ] as most Europeans were not actively or visibly infected, due to inherited immunity from generations of exposure to these diseases in Europe.
This changed when the Europeans began the human trafficking of massive numbers of enslaved Western and Central African people to the Americas.
Like the Native Americans, these African people, newly exposed to the European diseases, lacked any inherited resistances to the diseases of Europe. By , the disease had spread throughout South America and had arrived at the Plata basin.
European colonists perpetrated massacres on the indigenous peoples and enslaved them. Two months later, after consultation with the Audencia of Santo Domingo, Enriquillo was offered any part of the island to live in peace.
The Laws of Burgos, — , were the first codified set of laws governing the behavior of Spanish settlers in America, particularly with regard to native Indians. The laws forbade the maltreatment of natives and endorsed their conversion to Catholicism. Epidemic disease was the overwhelming cause of the population decline of the American natives. Smallpox was only the first epidemic. Typhus probably in , influenza and smallpox together in , smallpox again in , diphtheria in , measles in —all ravaged the remains of Inca culture.
Smallpox killed millions of native inhabitants of Mexico. There are many factors as to why Native Americans suffered such immense losses from Afro-Eurasian diseases. Many European diseases, like cow pox, are acquired from domesticated animals that are not indigenous to the Americas. European populations had adapted to these diseases, and built up resistance, over many generations.
Many of the European diseases that were brought over to the Americas were diseases, like yellow fever , that were relatively manageable if infected as a child, but were deadly if infected as an adult. Children could often survive the disease, resulting in immunity to the disease for the rest of their life.
But contact with adult populations without this childhood or inherited immunity would result in these diseases proving fatal. Colonization of the Caribbean led to the destruction of the Arawaks of the Lesser Antilles. Their culture was destroyed by Only had survived by the year , though the bloodlines continued through to the modern populace.
In Amazonia, indigenous societies weathered, and continue to suffer, centuries of colonization and genocide. Contact with European diseases such as smallpox and measles killed between 50 and 67 per cent of the aboriginal population of North America in the first hundred years after the arrival of Europeans.
As it had done elsewhere, the virus wiped out entire population-groups of Native Americans. The indigenous peoples in Brazil declined from a pre-Columbian high of an estimated three million  to some , in The Spanish Empire and other Europeans re-introduced horses to the Americas. Some of these animals escaped and began to breed and increase their numbers in the wild.
By domesticating horses, some tribes had great success: horses enabled them to expand their territories, exchange more goods with neighboring tribes, and more easily capture game , especially bison.
In the course of thousands of years, American indigenous peoples domesticated, bred and cultivated a large array of plant species. Numerous such agricultural products retain their native names in the English and Spanish lexicons. The South American highlands became a center of early agriculture. Genetic testing of the wide variety of cultivars and wild species suggests that the potato has a single origin in the area of southern Peru ,  from a species in the Solanum brevicaule complex.
Natives of North America began practicing farming approximately 4, years ago, late in the Archaic period of North American cultures. Technology had advanced to the point where pottery had started to become common and the small-scale felling of trees had become feasible. Concurrently, the Archaic Indians began using fire in a controlled manner.
They carried out intentional burning of vegetation to mimic the effects of natural fires that tended to clear forest understories. It made travel easier and facilitated the growth of herbs and berry-producing plants, which were important both for food and for medicines.
In the Mississippi River valley, Europeans noted that Native Americans managed groves of nut - and fruit-trees not far from villages and towns and their gardens and agricultural fields. They would have used prescribed burning further away, in forest and prairie areas. Many crops first domesticated by indigenous Americans are now produced and used globally, most notably maize or "corn", arguably the most important crop in the world.
Studies of contemporary indigenous environmental management — including of agro-forestry practices among Itza Maya in Guatemala and of hunting and fishing among the Menominee of Wisconsin — suggest that longstanding "sacred values" may represent a summary of sustainable millennial traditions.
Indigenous Americans also domesticated some animals, such as llamas , alpacas , and guinea-pigs. Cultural practices in the Americas seem to have been shared mostly within geographical zones where distinct ethnic groups adopting shared cultural traits, similar technologies, and social organizations. An example of such a cultural area is Mesoamerica , where millennia of coexistence and shared development among the peoples of the region produced a fairly homogeneous culture with complex agricultural and social patterns.
Another well-known example is the North American plains where until the 19th century several peoples shared the traits of nomadic hunter-gatherers based primarily on buffalo hunting. The languages of the North American Indians have been classified into 56 groups or stock tongues, in which the spoken languages of the tribes may be said to centre. In connection with speech, reference may be made to gesture language which was highly developed in parts of this area.
Of equal interest is the picture writing especially well developed among the Chippewas and Delawares. The development of writing is counted among the many achievements and innovations of pre-Columbian American cultures. Independent from the development of writing in other areas of the world, the Mesoamerican region produced several indigenous writing systems beginning in the 1st millennium BCE.
What may be the earliest-known example in the Americas of an extensive text thought to be writing is by the Cascajal Block. The Maya writing system was a combination of phonetic syllabic symbols and logograms —that is, it was a logosyllabic writing system. It is the only pre-Columbian writing system known to represent completely the spoken language of its community.
May 3. This dramatically skews the voices that are heard at the world's leading Model United Nations conferences. King used Facebook to promote his project and invite students to apply to be delegates. Literacy Research and Instruction. In , Vietnamese police in Chau Giang village stormed into a Cham Mosque, stole the electric generator, and also raped Cham girls. American Journal of Occupational Therapy. This team constructed a curriculum based on three ideas; 1 Native American students are harmed when their curriculum is void of knowledge that reflect their identity, culture, and heritage, 2 students who are not Native American are harmed as they learn about narrowed and historicized depictions of Indigenous peoples of the United States, and 3 teaching knowledge from a variety of perspectives should be fundamental to any learning environment.
Indigenous native model. Navigation menu
New native-run e-commerce platforms, such as Beyond Buckskin and the B. Yellowtail Collective , have also helped native artists from more remote locations get proper exposure and payment for their works. The excitement has only grown. The Santa Fe Indian Market , which has been running since , remains one of the most celebrated platforms for indigenous fashion-makers.
There is also an annual fashion show for designers to show their latest collections. It has drawn big names in the past—Orlando Dugi, Dorothy Grant. Though smaller events like the Native Art Market found in D. There one can often find Phillip Bread, who helps organize the event and appears on its runways.
The year-old, who is Comanche, Kiowa, and Blackfoot, got an early start in modeling: he got his first break in Santa Fe, where he currently resides. It was broken down into two categories: contemporary and traditional dress. He chose to go with the latter.
I also want to learn more about how to protect human rights and learn about global affairs and almost everything else the National High School Model United Nations Conference has to offer. I think it is important as Indigenous people to have a voice and have a seat at the table.
I want to be a leader and gain more leadership qualities while attending not only for myself but so I can execute these leadership qualities back home and put them into action. I would also like to set an example for native youth everywhere to let them know they can travel and do big things and to learn how to better their communities and tribes.
The International Model United Nations Association, a longstanding partner of the United Nations, provides students with a forum to hone skills in diplomacy, negotiation, critical thinking, compromise, public speaking, writing, and research. This opportunity allows Native youth to practice and take an interest in human rights, including advocating for the rights of Indigenous people around the globe.
Model United Nations: Indigenous Delegates Sort: Oldest. Featured Community 2. Associate Editor Vincent Schilling. Kolby KickingWoman. Sandra Hale Schulman. Let it go, Braves, Let it go. Oct New Comment. Reporter, Producer Jourdan Bennett-Begaye. May 3. Mar
Indigenous peoples of the Americas - Wikipedia
Cultural Studies of Science Education. With growing evidence demonstrating the impact of undergraduate research experiences on educational persistence, efforts are currently being made to expand these opportunities within universities and research institutions throughout the United States.
Recruiting underrepresented students into these programs has become an increasingly popular method of promoting diversity in science. Given the low matriculation into postsecondary education and completion rates among Native Americans, there is a great need for Native American undergraduate research internships. Although research has shown that Western education models tend to be less effective with Native populations, the implementation of indigenous epistemologies and pedagogies within higher education, including research experiences, is rare.
This study explores the applicability of a cognitive apprenticeship merged with an indigenous approach, the Circle of Courage, to build a scientific learning environment and enhance the academic and professional development of Native students engaged in an undergraduate research experience in the health sciences.
Data were drawn from focus groups with 20 students who participated in this program in — Questions explored the extent to which relational bonds between students and mentors were cultivated as well as the impact of this experience on the development of research skills, intellectual growth, academic and professional self-determination, and the attachment of meaning to their research experiences.
Data were analyzed via deductive content analysis, allowing for an assessment of how the theoretical constructs inherent to this model belonging, mastery, independence, and generosity impacted students. Findings suggest that engaging Native students in research experiences that prioritize the needs of belonging, mastery, independence, and generosity can be a successful means of fostering a positive learning environment, in which students felt like significant members of a research team, developed a greater understanding and appreciation for the role of science in education and its various applications to socially relevant health issues, made more informed decisions about a career in research and the health sciences, and worked toward improving the health and well-being of others while also inspiring hope among their people back home.
This study represents an extension of the application of the Circle of Courage to an undergraduate research experience and provides evidence of its ability to be used as a framework for cultivating Native scientists.
The purpose of this paper is to present an Indigenous pedagogical model and its practice within the educational space of a research experience. More specifically, the following study is an example of how an Indigenous learning model was applied to a research training program for Native American undergraduate students, with a particular focus on the impact of this model as it was incorporated into this program on learning outcomes and the mentor—mentee relationship.
This article may be of particular relevance to those interested in the ongoing dialogue regarding effective mentoring strategies with Indigenous students, particularly those students interested in pursuing careers in science and research. With few published studies exploring the incorporation of Indigenous pedagogical models into research experiences for undergraduate students, this study is unique in its application of such a model to a research training program.
The Circle of Courage, a positive youth development model rooted in Indigenous spiritual values and educational practices, is based on the understanding that for healthy developmental growth to occur, the needs for belonging relational attachment and significance , mastery competency and achievement , independence self-determination and responsibility , and generosity selfless giving and concern for others must be fulfilled.
Given the extensive use and successful application of the Circle of Courage combined with its relevance to Native peoples, this model provided the impetus for the development and implementation of the Summer Undergraduate Research Experience SURE. The SURE program is a week internship in which students gain hands-on research experience and mentoring in a particular field of science, in this case, the biomedical and social-behavioral health sciences.
The re-emergence of Indigenous science is also described along with approaches to integrating Indigenous ways of knowing with Western science. The underlying principles and the development of the Circle of Courage model as well as its application to the SURE program are outlined along with the accompanying conventional qualitative methodologies used.
Results describe the overarching themes of focus group narratives and a discussion of findings as they relate to Indigenous pedagogies and scientific collaborations and future directions are detailed.
Because study participants were recruited from universities throughout the U. In the pursuit of objectivity, there has been a long tradition of removing scientists, as the individuals who are investigating and applying science, from the narratives of science. In doing so, we neglect to account for the ways in which the observer plays a critical role in perceptions of what or who is being observed. Rather than being simply a dichotomy between the observer and the observed, our histories and relationships play a critical role in the collective process of knowledge production.
The following is a brief summary of our stories; who we are, where we come from, and how we locate ourselves within our research. Tracey McMahon, MS. Both my mother and father are primarily Irish, with ethnic mixtures from other European countries, most of which can be traced to the British Isles.
Though we moved around a bit when I was little, most of my formative years were spent in Pierre, South Dakota, which is approximately 20 miles from tribal lands, specifically, the Lower Brule Reservation.
My experiences from having relatives living near a reservation coupled with my experiences growing up in Pierre exposed me to reservation life and racial prejudice at a young age.
However, these experiences also taught me the value of family and community. From as far back as I can remember, I have always had a strong desire to effect positive social change and promote equity and justice.
The racial prejudice directed toward Native Americans I witnessed growing up fueled my desire to diffuse such prejudicial attitudes and reduce disparities, a commitment that played a pivotal role in my educational and professional journey.
In working for a Native American owned engineering company while completing my undergraduate degree, I did a lot of travelling to the reservations throughout South Dakota. This experience opened my eyes to some of the difficulties encountered on reservations, the many strengths and resiliency of Native peoples, and the diversity between and within tribes.
I am the internal evaluator of the SURE program and led the development and facilitation of the focus groups conducted as part of this study and assisted with the data analysis. As an evaluator, I often work in a supportive capacity, working closely with our community and tribal partners to understand their vision and what they hope to achieve through the services they offer or plan to offer, what they see as the role of evaluation in exploring the value and impact of their services and activities, provide evidence to inform continuous quality improvement efforts, and disseminate findings to community members and stakeholders.
Emily Griese, PhD. I grew up in rural South Dakota, a primarily Caucasian community positioned just 20 miles from reservation land, including several communities and small schools. As I began to understand the various factors impacting the youth within my rural community and those living so close, I was in awe of the resilience these youths showed in the face of extreme adversity.
As I moved outside of South Dakota for my undergraduate and graduate education, I recognized the unique position I was in—both in being fortunate to have access to education, but even more, the experiences I had growing up to provide context and a new place for learning within my career. At this crucial point in my life and education, I was able to move back to South Dakota to work with an organization and team that truly embraced and engaged in community-based participatory work across the region, both in rural and tribal communities.
In working with Dr. Kenyon and her team as a postdoctoral fellow, I was able to establish and grow relationships with community members and learn alongside as we worked to tell the stories of these communities.
From this work came the present study in which I led the qualitative data analysis. My research continues in this area, working to uncover and better understand the unique sources of resilience among Native American and rural youth. DenYelle Baete Kenyon. It was only after I moved away and went to college that I fully appreciated the advantages I was afforded growing up in a stable loving home, and realized that many others were not so fortunate.
After I discovered my love for research as an undergraduate and decided to go to graduate school which was unheard of in my extended family , my mission became to make an impact beyond the ivory tower through research. During my postdoctoral fellowship, I heard there was a major research emphasis in my hometown area and was ecstatic it was in health disparities research with Native American populations.
It was only after I left South Dakota, living near tribal nations in Minnesota and Arizona, that I realized the atrocious disparities faced by Native American people in my own home state. I was excited yet intimidated to tackle these topics firsthand, as there were only a handful of Native American students who attended my school growing up.
I knew I wanted to work with teens, and having learned about the importance of community-based participatory research principles, my first projects were conducting Photovoice projects with Native American teens from a tribal school and Native American freshman college students. I have always believed education was integral to empowerment, and in reflecting on the importance of the path my undergraduate research internship started me down, I started a research internship for Native students through the Pathways into Public Health program in I feel deeply about promoting social justice and making an impact with Native American students, giving them the inspiration and research experience I received in college.
I have felt firsthand the value of having Native students on our research projects and learning from them not just them learning from us. For example, the Native students involved in these projects have taught me a great deal about traditional Native cultures and some of the identity issues that come with walking in multiple worlds. In approaching the conduct of research with people from a culture different than my own, I received great advice from our cultural liaisons to know and be true to myself, not to posture or pretend to know more about the culture than I actually do.
This underlying value of diversity, respect, and social justice for our First Americans is what I try to instill into my two young children. When we were starting to build SURE, the first author, Tracey McMahon, and I were in discussions with Sarah Brokenleg, a partner working on related efforts for Native undergraduates in healthcare careers.
She suggested using the Circle of Courage model, which I previously read about but had not thought about applying to an older group of students. Her father, Dr. Martin Brokenleg, is one of the co-creators of the Circle of Courage. To become more familiar with the model, we received training on the Circle of Courage and attended a number of presentations by Martin Brokenleg and his colleagues in which they spoke about the development and underlying principles of the model.
We are grateful for this opportunity to share some of our experiences throughout this journey and hope the reader enjoys this small part of our story and can apply some lessons learned to their own work. To better understand Native student persistence in higher education, it is important to recognize the conflicted relationship Native peoples have had with education in the U. In the early s, the U. These policies used education as an instrument for acculturating Native youth to Eurocentric ways of thinking and living an ideology emphasizing European or Anglo-American historical and cultural perspectives often so as to exclude other political, geographical, or cultural groups and reinforcing power relationships Gundlach Graham Numerous cases of sexual, physical, and emotional abuse were also reported Margolis The culmination of boarding school experiences often resulted in feelings of rejection and alienation from both White society and Native society Churchill Although the assimilation policies that characterized the boarding school era are no longer in place, subtle assimilation practices can still be seen within the educational system and methods of scientific inquiry today.
For instance, some researchers have argued that the national movement towards the standardization of educational practices assimilates and acculturates students to the dominant culture e. This movement has gained momentum in recent years since standards-based accountability has been one of the leading principals of educational reform in the U. Because standardized test performance are often required by schools and states for receipt of federal aid, students and teachers are pressured to abide by federal education mandates and assimilate to the academic testing culture.
Though many educators and school administrators do not equate high test scores with quality schooling and support diversity in school curricula, pressures to align education content and standards with international benchmarks and compete in the global economy have furthered the national political agenda for a test-driven school system Spring It should be noted, however, that despite the use of standardized testing as a collective measure of academic competencies, education in the U.
The localization of education in the U. Though the federal government does provide some funding for education, 92 percent of this funding comes from state, local, and private sources U. Department of Education Rather, the federal government effects education through legislation. Department of the Interior b. Whereas the BIE has made efforts to strengthen Indigenous cultures through pedagogy and curricula tailored to Indigenous learning needs and ways of knowing, only 7 percent of Native students attend schools administered by the BIE, while 90 percent attend public schools.
This puts much of the responsibility for recognizing the unique education and cultural needs of Native students on public schools.
Therefore, state education policies tend to have a greater impact on Native students compared to federal policies Meza The lack of publicized research on the role of state education agencies as actors in science education policy Cheek and Quiriconi , coupled with the diversity in state science education standards Lerner, Goodenough, Lynch, Schwartz, and Schwartz —which can vary between local school districts and even schools within the same district—makes it difficult to characterize the influence of local culture and politics on science education.
Conversely, the influences of the dominant cultural values and norms on science and science education in the U. For our purposes, a brief overview of the cultural terrain Native students navigate will help frame the broader discussion of ongoing efforts to forward an epistemological pluralism inclusive of Indigenous ways of knowing. This ability to find balance while moving in and out of both Indigenous and non-Indigenous learning systems signifies a common theme within the educational persistence literature.
That is, a strong cultural identity safeguards against cultural assimilation and alienation. Because how we come to know and understand the natural world is a culturally contexted social phenomenon, influenced by ideologies and to some degree determined by them, it is important to understand the role of ideology in scientific practices. Indigenous ways of knowing and ways of being continue to be undervalued and underrepresented in science curriculum and scientific research in the U.
Thus, it is our hope that Indigenous and Western knowledge systems work effectively together, recognizing the legitimacy of both and seeing the strengths in each. In the context of scientific research, epistemological expansion and ideological reform requires a critical examination of how science is defined in order to truly expand and improve scientific practices and methods of scientific inquiry.
Scientific knowledge, however, is inevitably situated, historically contingent, and culturally relative. In other words, scientific knowledge cannot be disentangled from its roots of knowledge acquisition, not strictly from a methodological standpoint the procedures used in a particular discipline or topic of study , but also epistemologically the nature and origins of knowledge and ontologically the nature of being.
Indigenous knowledge is often specific to a tribal community or locality. Still, the gaining recognition of Indigenous science as being distinct from non-Indigenous science as well as the role of Indigenous science in the self-determination of Indigenous education and efforts to re-claim science and knowledge production makes it necessary to clarify its meaning. Though Indigenous paradigms can vary from one tribe or individual to another, as articulated by Little Bear in Cajete , p.
Foundational to paradigms of Indigenous science is the relational maintenance of balance, harmony, and mutual reciprocity based off of traditions of holistic participation.