This is no accident. Napoleon cultivated an easily recognizable image by keeping his wardrobe simple. The three basic pieces were a modest uniform, a bicorne hat and an overcoat. Napoleon donned his first uniform in , when he graduated at age 16 from the military school in Paris and was commissioned as a second lieutenant of artillery. There was one part of his dress which had a very droll appearance; that was his boots.
Intheir uniforms were completely modified and saw the introduction of helmets and cuirasses. Napoleon uniform plume of their busby was red-over-green. When mounted the greatcoat protected not only the man but also part of the horse, weapons and harness. They wore grey horses. Officially only the Old Guard wore Napoleon uniform. It had long tail that was shortened before Published: October 27 They wore brass helmets with a long black mane, a simulated leopard fur turban and a red plume.
Unknown african american swimsuit models. Napoleon’s early uniforms
The M. The ancestors of Napoleon descended Napoleon uniform minor Italian nobility of Tuscan origin who had come to Corsica from Liguria in the 16th century. The helmet was made of polished steel with brass comb, a black mane, Napoleon uniform black cow-hide turbanblack visor edged with brass, a red plume in a small brass socket on the left side, and brass chin scales. At the twin battles of Jena and Auerstedtfought on 14 October, the French convincingly defeated the Prussians and inflicted heavy casualties. InNapoleon's remains were entombed in a porphyry stone sarcophagus in the crypt under the dome Napoleon uniform Les Invalides. Taste the Sweetest Little Rains of all! Invasions of enemy territory occurred over broader fronts which made wars costlier and more decisive. Retrieved 4 August This left Chunky butt funky and his Republican allies in control again but dependent on Bonaparte, who proceeded to peace negotiations with Austria. In the spring ofNapoleon and his troops crossed the Swiss Alps into Italy, aiming to surprise the Austrian armies that had reoccupied the peninsula when Napoleon was still in Egypt. Became Emperor.
Clothes that emperor wore in exile go on display — along with bicorne felt hat — for just a few days as they are very fragile.
- Sometimes you must have heard of the story how some of the military leaders disconcerted by soldiers wiping their nose on the proud uniform of Napoleon.
- From , the uniforms of the demi-brigades of the line infantry wore the blue "National Uniform" that was to be worn by all soldiers.
- Napoleon dominated European and global affairs for more than a decade while leading France against a series of coalitions in the Napoleonic Wars.
- The uniforms worn during Napoleonic Wars represent the most elaborate display of pomp in the whole history of military dress.
The uniforms worn during Napoleonic Wars represent the most elaborate display of pomp in the whole history of military dress. Coats, Greatcoats, Undercoats. It was white in summer and dark green in winter. Before there were many unofficial versions of the waistcoat.
For example instead of dark green it was red, or red braided with white, or green braided with red or white, etc. Between and many horse chasseurs however wore the new and simple uniform, called habit veste or Bardin-uniform.
The waistcoat of French foot gunner was white according to Knotel and Elting. But the Zimmerman Manuscript shows them in in blue waistcoats. The same for the Brunswick Manuscript and year of Berka Manuscript shows them also in blue for and Martinet gives them blue for The foot gunners of Old Guard wore white waistcoats for summer according to Bucquoy.
If battle was fought on a very hot day some soldiers wore only coats, or only waistcoats. In at Wagram the gunners of Old Guard went into action on that muggy day stripped to shirts.
Coat Jacket Habit-veste Picture: dark blue coat with dark blue shoulder straps piped red, red collar and cuffs pipped white, white lapels, white undercoat, and white shoulder belt.
The French line infantry wore it until Within each army diffent regiments were usually distinguished by "facings" - linings,turnbacks and braiding on coats in colours that were distinctive to one or several regiments. The white coats or rather light grey popular amongst many armies soiled easily and had to be pipeclayed to retain any semblence of cleanliness.
Green as worn by jagers and rifle regiments proved particularly prone to fading until suitable chemical dyes were devised in the s. The red were the most expensive of the six basic colors and together with white uniforms made the wearers a better target for enemy. In the course of time coats of blue faded badly, those of pike gray turned a dirty ashen color, and those of green assumed a tinge of yellow, while repairs were all too evident on dyed coats of any kind, and added to a general look of shabbiness.
Coats of white, on the other hand, could always be worked up with chalk to make them look 'new and brilliant. It was not until 20th Century when drab colours were being adopted for active service and ordinary duty wear.
The white lapels were treated with pipe clay, which made them really white. In the dark blue coats were oficially introduced in the infantry. It had long tail that was shortened before The weather 'softened' the color of the dark blue and dust, blood and mud made it sometimes unrecognizable.
The dark blue became greyish blue etc. In the coat was given shorter tail and was stated that the collar and cuffs are red piped white. The lapels were white piped red although - according to an order of July 13th - many colonels didn't obey this order and have abolished the red piping. According to regulations the coat of line infantry suppose to have red cuffs with dark blue cuff flaps but red cuff flaps were more popular. There were few differences between the coat of line and light infantryman.
According to Etat-Militaire the coat tail of light infantryman was shorter than that of the lineman. The regulations of prescribed for light infantry blue cuffs pipped white but many soldiers had the unofficial red cuff flaps.
In as a result of the British naval blockade there was a shortage of indigo used for dyeing cloth and so Napoleon ordered the introduction of a white uniform for his line infantry. According to Decree of April 25th the following regiments of line infantry were assigned white coats: 3rd, 4th, 8th, 12th, 14th, 15th, 16th, 17th, 18th, 19th, 21st, 22nd, 24th, 25th, 27th, 28th, 32nd, 33rd, 34th and 36th Line.
Journal Militaire Vol I , pp The next decree mentioned all line regiments. Napoleon expressed his disapproval and only 18 of the regiments were issued with these. This is said that it happened after he saw bloodstained white uniforms at Eylau. But to me this reason sounds a little bit strange. The battle at Eylau was fought on a snowy, winter day and soldier wore the warm long greatcoat. If he was wounded the greatcoat, and not the white jacket, was "marked".
Secondly, white uniforms didn't bother the Austrians, they wore them all the time. It didn't bother the Saxon soldiers neither.
I guess the white color reminded Napoleon the old regime of previous century and therefore he disapproved it. In the importing of indigo resumed and the dark blue coats were reinstated. In January was introduced so-called habit-veste , a coat with even shorter tail officers' tails were slightly longer. Its white turnbacks bore a blue crowned "N" for fusiliers, red grenade for grenadiers and yellow horn for voltigeurs. This coat - in my opinion - is the most beautiful, the most elegant of all infantry uniforms of Napoleonic era.
The white dark blue for light infantry "plastron" - style lapels were piped red white for light infantry. The cuffs were red piped white. Major Bardin was responsible for the design of this coat and for this reason this is known under "Bardin uniform" in western literature. Most French infantry units wore it in the battles of Ligny and Waterloo. Infantry greatcoat overcoat Capote. Life during campaign had a variety of conditions and experiences for the cavalrymen.
There were great hardships undergone, and the weather had the greatest influence on conditions, varying from heat to extreme cold. The main protection against rain and snow was one's greatcoat. It was popular and comfortable voluminous wear and could be worn with or without the coat underneath.
Many troops wore civilian overcoats, capes and cloaks. Some greatcoats overcoats were purchased by individual soldiers, NCOs and officers. One of the innovations introduced in was sky-blue greatcoat for officers. It was not until that the were greatcoats issued to the troops. They were purchased not by individuals but from regimental funds.
In April all soldiers of field battalions but not the depot, reserve and garrison battalions received beige, grey, blue and brown greatcoats. There was little standarization but the most common were dull beige and it was the official color. According to Ordannance du 25 Avril "La capote ou redingote en drap beige. The average French greatcoat was not too long, just below the knee. The Russian greatcoats were longer but climate in Russia was harsher.
Usually, French infantry had their greatcoats introduced officially in late rolled on the back of their backpacks. They couldn't wear them rolled over the shoulder as the Russians and Prussians because they were cut differently. For example the Prussian greatcoats were very wide at the bottom. The French ones were narrower and thus, if you rolled them, would have been too short to be carried over the shoulder.
In after the Battle of Austerlitz the squadron of Napoleon's escort spent whole night stripping the Russian corpses of their voluminous warm greatcoats with which to cover the wounded. According to Article 21 of the Bardin regulations issued in all greatcoats for the line and light infantry were made of "beige serge wool. All of them were beige greatcoats. Carl Vernet in his book about Bardin Regulations gave grey greatcoats for privates and NCOs in infantry and artillery and dark blue for officers.
In all the numerous gunners of four naval artillery regiments were issued dark blue not beige greatcoats. According to Knotel in campaigns many greatcoats in line and light infantry bore red patches on collars.
In the Young Guard the greatcoats were worn over the uniforms. Henri Lachoque writes: "The following order was issued: 'Coats will be worn under the overcoats. On fine days generals may order the latter rolled over the packs; but in foul or cold weather, or on night marches, soldiers must wear both coats and ocercoats.
The infantry of Young Guard wore dark-grey greatcoats some say it was blue-grey, with more grey than blue. In majority of the Young Guard left on campaign wearing dark grey greatcoats with red or yellow epauletes.
Minority wore either beige of line troops or dark-blue of Old Guard. Cavalry greatcoat. Cloak Manteau-capote.
Left: French 9th Hussar Regiment. Right: French Chevaulegere Lanciers. The sleeves cloaks looked awesome during charge but not too comfortable when carbines were used. When mounted the greatcoat protected not only the man but also part of the horse, weapons and harness. In was ordered to replace them with capotes. The capotes had sleeves, and were made of white wool cloth "with light blue thread" for privates in heavy cavalry, or dark green for privates of light cavalry.
The officers wore either dark blue cuirassiers and carabiniers or dark green dragoons, lancers, chasseurs and hussars capotes. On a warm day before combat the greatcoat cloak or capote was rolled over the shoulder and served as a protection against saber blows and lance thrusts. Ernst Maximilian Hermann von Gaffron of the Prussian Silesian Cuirassiers describes combat with French dragoons in at Liebertwolkwitz: "The horse-tail manes of their helmets Right: French Dragoons.
Shakos, Helmets and Bearskins. Military headwears, and military styles have gone through great changes over the centuries. The styles and decoration of headwears varied immensely with the status and resources throughout the period of Napoleonic wars. Mercenary or irregular troops could develop their own fashions.
On the first day, Charles disposed of , soldiers against only 31, commanded by Napoleon. Murat married one of Napoleon's sisters, becoming his brother-in-law; he also served under Napoleon as one of his generals. The helmet was made of polished steel with brass comb, a black mane, a black cow-hide turban , black visor edged with brass, a red plume in a small brass socket on the left side, and brass chin scales. For parade the brass chinscales were tied over the front of the shako and its pompon. Main article: Napoleonic Code. French Lancer Facings.
Napoleon uniform. Why they used Brass Buttons?
Uniforms : Napoleonic Wars : French : Russian : Austrian : British : Prussian
From , the uniforms of the demi-brigades of the line infantry wore the blue "National Uniform" that was to be worn by all soldiers. However, for a long time, line infantry were a mix of the new blue coats worn by the National Guard and the white uniforms of seasoned veterans from the old Royal army.
The blue dress was named the "National Uniform" and was worn by all line infantry by While headgear and details in cut changed, the uniform remained almost completely the same from the beginning of the French Revolution. The uniform was made of a blue coat, red piped white collar and cuffs, white piped red lapels, blue piped red cuff flaps and shoulder straps, white turnbacks piped red, and brass buttons.
Only the brass buttons had the units' identification numbers stamped on them. The lapels were fastened at the upper chest but sloped away below. The hat, a black felt bicorne , was the standard infantry headdress at some of Napoleon's greatest battles.
In , the hat was replaced by the shako , which was made of black felt, chevron on the side and visor, a brass diamond shaped plate stamped with the Imperial eagle over the unit's regimental number, white cords, and brass chin scales.
Napoleon experimented with a few units by reintroducing white coats with facings of different colours specific to each unit reminiscent of the old Royal army's coats , but these proved unpopular. Some units added pompons to the shako as well as plumes. Many units had pompoms with a houpette and the center generally colored white with the company number printed in black or red. The diamond shaped plate with the regimental was most common, but some units had the shape of an eagle or the rising sun.
In , the cut of the coat was changed into a coatee that included short tails, a blue crowned N on the turnbacks, and the lapels fastened down to the waist and cut square. The waistcoat was made higher and was therefore not visible. The black gaiters came up to below the knees. The plate on the shako was now a crowned eagle over a semicircle with the regimental number inscribed on it. The black leather M. The cartridge box flap generally had a white linen cover and the forage cap was rolled under the box with red tassel hanging out.
The M. The Grenadiers uniform was almost exactly the same as that of the fusiliers, except for red epaulettes and grenades worn on the turnbacks. They wore a bearskin cap with a brass plate stamped with a flaming grenade on the front, red cords and plume, and a red back patch with a white cross. The epaulettes broadened their shoulders and the tall bearskins made them look even taller. Moustaches were also mandatory. There were several variations that included a blue and red quartered back, white cords and a peak.
This variation's headdress was a bicorne with a red pompom. Voltigeurs wore a yellow-buff collar, green epaulettes with a yellow crescent, and yellow-buff bugle horns on the turnbacks.
From , they wore shakos, but some had bicorne hats with green pompoms and a yellow brush. By , all Voltigeurs had a shako which could be plain black, and have a yellow top or bottom band, or have yellow chevrons, green cords, and an all-green plume or a green plume with a yellow tip. Every regiment had a squad of Sappers who were generally dressed as grenadiers with red epaulettes and a cross axes badge on the upper sleeves, a bearskin cap with red cords and feather but no plate. They were equipped with a long leather apron , white gauntlet gloves, and an axe with a brass mounted handle.
It was customary for sappers to grow beards. Officers wore the same uniform as their men but it was of better quality. Their brass buttons were gilt , they had epaulettes according to their rank, and, on duty, they had a gilt gorget with a silver badge, generally a crowned eagle. Their turnback ornaments were identical to those of other ranks but in gold, while the battalion staff had grenades.
Instead of gaiters, they wore black boots. Officers' bicornes had gold cockade loops and sometimes gold tassels at the end. Bearskin caps had gold cords, and a plate and cross on the back patch. Shakos had gilt plates and chin scales, gold bands and sometimes chevrons.
Plumes and pompons were colored in the company's color or white if on regimental staff. Drummers had basically the same uniform as their company with tricolor, yellow, or orange lace edgings, red wings edged with lace, and a bass drum with medium blue hoops and white belts.
From to , their uniforms consisted of a blue coat with a blue piped red collar, red cuffs, lapels and turnbacks with white grenades, red epaulettes with edged white straps, red cuff flaps for the 1st Regiment, blue piped red for the 2nd; pewter buttons, a white waistcoast, buff breeches, high boots, a black bearskin cap, white cords, a red patch with a white cross, a red plume, metal white chin scales from , yellow-buff edged white belts, white gauntlet gloves, blue cloaks, and white sheepskin edged red.
They wore white long gaiters for service on foot and blue overalls for undress. Carabiniers were armed with a dragoon musket with a bayonet and sword.
The regiments rode black horses while trumpeters rode greys. Trumpeters wore reversed colors, a red coat with a red collar, silver cuffs edged blue, lapels and turnbacks, silver and blue epaulettes, as well as other items described above.
In , their uniforms were completely modified and saw the introduction of helmets and cuirasses. They wore a brass cuirass and a brass helmet with a red woolen crest named chenille caterpillar, in French , a sealskin turban, black leather visor and brass chin scales. The Cuirassier 's uniform consisted of a blue coat with long tails until , when all Cuirassier regiments began to wear cuirasses and helmets. The helmet was made of polished steel with brass comb, a black mane, a black cow-hide turban , black visor edged with brass, a red plume in a small brass socket on the left side, and brass chin scales.
Senior officers had white plumes and gilded brass. The cuirass had front and back plates made of polished steel and had leather straps with brass scales, brass studs and fittings and the cuirass lining was edged with white in all regiments. Cuirassiers were armed with a straight-bladed cavalry sword, carbine and a pistol from The uniform of the trumpeters from consisted of a helmet with a red or white mane, a blue single-breasted coatee with cuffs and a collar edged with silver or white lace, and white lace at buttonholes on the front.
Before , the trumpeters of the 1st and 4th trumpeters had a white helmet mane, a red plume, a red coatee, red collar and cuffs edged silver, white turnbacks with red grenades, seven laces on the chests, and red epaulettes. The 6th regiment in circa — wore a white helmet mane and red plume, a blue coatee with orange edged silver cuffs and collar, red epaulettes with a white crescent, and orange laces on the chest. The 7th regiment wore a yellow coatee and the 8th regiment wore an orange one.
The 13th regiment, in , wore a white helmet mane, a wine red coatee with five white laces in front. They did not wear the cuirass and were mounted on white and gray horses. The uniform of the Dragoon consisted of a green coat with turnbacks and lapels of the regimental facing color, and the collar, cuffs, cuff flaps, and piping edging the facings either of the facings color or green depending on the regiment, green shoulder straps piped with the facing color, yet many regiments wore white epaulattes instead, turnbacks with green grenades, pewter buttons, a white waistcoat and breeches, black long boots, a brass helmet with a brass crest, a black helmet mane, a sealskin turban, black leather visor, the plume varied see below , brass chin scales, a bearskin cap with a red plume, red and white cords, a red back panel with a white cross, red epaulettes for elite companies, a green surtout and green stable jacket, a green forage cap piped the facing color, white lace and grenade, white duck trousers, grey overalls with buttons on the side, white gauntlet gloves, an off-white cloak, and green housing edged white with white number.
Sappers wore bearskin caps with red cords, plumes, and a back panel with a white cross, red epaulattes, red crossed axes on the upper sleeves, and a white or buff apron. From February , the coatee remained the same colour while plumes were no longer issued for helmets. Instead, pompoms coloured red, sky blue, orange, and violet were issued for the first company of each squadron. These same colors were used for the white centre of the second companies. They were armed with a Dragoon musket with a bayonet and a sword.
Officers wore silver buttons and lace, gilded brass on their helmets, a turban of leopard fur usually an imitation that often went over the visor, and white plumes for the senior officers.
Trumpeters wore reversed colors, facing sometimes edged with white lace, a coat often single-breasted with white buttonholes in front, no cuff flaps, white epaulettes, and a white of red mane on the helmet. The same dress was used for the Foot Dragoons but with brass drums with blue hoops instead of trumpets. They rode white and grey horses. The uniform of the light cavalry or chevau-legers of the line consisted of a green coat with turnbacks and lapels of the regimental facing color, which could be crimson, red, blue, pink or yellow.
The collar and cuffs were of the facings color, the green shoulder straps and the breeches were piped with the facing color. The uniform of the Napoleonic hussars included the pelisse : a short fur edged jacket which was often worn slung over one shoulder in the style of a cape, and was fastened with a cord.
This garment was extensively adorned with braiding often gold or silver for officers and several rows of multiple buttons. Under it was worn the dolman or tunic which was also decorated in braid. On active service the hussar normally wore reinforced breeches which had leather on the inside of the leg to prevent them from wearing due to the extensive riding in the saddle. On the outside of such breeches, running up the outside was a row of buttons, and sometimes a stripe in a different colour.
A shako or fur busby was worn as headwear. The colours of dolman, pelisse and breeches varied greatly by regiment, even within the same army. The French hussar of the Napoleonic period was armed with a brass hilted sabre and sometimes with a brace of pistols although these were often unavailable.
Their breeches were blue with black winter or white summer gaiters. They wore a shako with a red plume. The uniform of the Horse artillerists of the line was made of a hussar-style blue coat with red braids, red cuffs and brass buttons. They wore blue piped red hussar-style breeches, black hussar boots and a black shako with red cords and plume. The Horse artillerists could wear a simplified version that was very similar to that of the Foot artillerists.
The uniform of the soldiers of the train was made of a light blue-grey coat and buff breeches. The facings were dark blue for the artillery train or brown for the baggage train.
Soldiers of the train wore a shako with a light blue-grey or red plume or pompons. Their buttons and other metallic elements were silver. Other differences include the blue collar of the Guard Grenadiers instead of red pipped white collar for Line grenadiers and longer red turnbacks with gold grenades instead of white turnbacks piped red with red grenades.
The only change was the headgear, black shako with imperial eagle, white cord and brass chin straps, with tricolor cockade atop and green and red plume. Raised from sailors of the French navy who had distinguished themselves, the battalion of Marins wore a distinctive, elaborate uniform resembling that of the hussars. Their officers bore titles of rank derived from their seagoing compatriots, and the overall commander of the marines bore the rank of Capitaine de Vaisseau.
Their duties including manning boats and other watercaft used by the Emperor. The Marines of the Imperial Guard wore blue vest and trousers piped aurore orange-gold. They had aurore hussar-style braids on their tunic, gold epaulettes and red cuffs.
Their shako was black piped aurore with a red plume. The Dragoon Guards wore green coats with white lapels and red turnbacks. They also wore aurore light orange aiguilettes and epaulettes.
They wore brass helmets with a long black mane, a simulated leopard fur turban and a red plume.