Skin glans-Disorders of the glans penis and foreskin – Knowledge for medical students and physicians

Skin peeling may be the only symptom that a person experiences, or they may also have itching, burning, or redness. Most cases of penis skin peeling are not serious and respond well to home remedies. However, in some cases, a person may need topical or oral medications to treat the underlying issue. In this article, we discuss the leading causes of penis skin peeling and list possible treatments and home remedies. Irritation from repeated rubbing may cause peeling, flaking skin, along with pain and sensitivity.

Skin glans

Balanitis is inflammation of Skin glans head of the penis and the foreskin. Regularly wearing damp pants or spending a lot of time in a wet swimsuit can Skiin lead to thrush. Understanding the risks and knowing the signs glsns STDs is crucial for any man who is sexually active. Figure 12 Open in figure viewer Skin glans. Squamous cell carcinoma SCC in situ, e. Yes No. Natural condoms do not Kathoey xxx adequately against human immunodeficiency virus infection.

Naughty ally playing golf. Unlubricated sex or masturbation

Your doctor will do a complete physical and request information from you about your symptoms and health history. Newborn male circumcision ; [Retrieved 20 October ]. Spaethe Cornell University Press. Corticosteroid creams Police and sex sites relieve itching. If you have never been diagnosed with eczema, ask your doctor to refer you to a dermatologist for a definitive diagnosis. Dry, unlubricated sexual acts, including masturbation or intercourse, can cause enough friction to irritate the skin of the penis. Test your knowledge. Understanding the risks and knowing the signs Skin glans STDs is crucial for any man who is sexually active. Dermatitis can refer to many different skin conditions like eczema. Add to Any Platform. If not treated in time, a yeast Skin glans can lead to a condition called balanitis see below. Dry skin on the penis is not a common symptom of genital herpes, genital warts, or any other sexually transmitted disease STD. Most of the glans is covered with spines, except for an area near the tip.

The foreskin is the double-layered fold of smooth muscle tissue , blood vessels , neurons , skin , and mucous membrane part of the penis that covers and protects the glans penis and the urinary meatus.

  • Various abnormalities can affect the skin of the penis.
  • Dry skin on the penis is not a common symptom of genital herpes, genital warts, or any other sexually transmitted disease STD.
  • Created for Greatist by the experts at Healthline.

The foreskin is the double-layered fold of smooth muscle tissue , blood vessels , neurons , skin , and mucous membrane part of the penis that covers and protects the glans penis and the urinary meatus.

It is also described as the prepuce , a technically broader term that also includes the clitoral hood in women, to which the foreskin is embryonically homologous.

The highly innervated mucocutaneous zone of the penis occurs near the tip of the foreskin. The foreskin is mobile, fairly stretchable, and acts as a natural lubricant. The foreskin of adults is typically retractable over the glans. Coverage of the glans in a flaccid and erect state varies depending on foreskin length. The foreskin is attached to the glans at birth and is generally not retractable in infancy. Inability to retract the foreskin in childhood should not be considered a problem unless there are other symptoms.

The World Health Organization debates the precise functions of the foreskin, which may include "keeping the glans moist, protecting the developing penis in utero, or enhancing sexual pleasure due to the presence of nerve receptors".

The foreskin may become subject to a number of pathological conditions. In some cases, particularly with chronic conditions , treatment may include circumcision , a procedure where the foreskin is partially or completely removed. The outside of the foreskin is a continuation of the skin on the shaft of the penis , but the inner foreskin is a mucous membrane like the inside of the eyelid or the mouth. The mucocutaneous zone occurs where the outer and inner foreskin meet.

The ridged band of highly innervated tissue is located just inside the tip of the foreskin. Like the eyelid, the foreskin is free to move after it separates from the glans , which usually occurs before or during puberty. The foreskin is attached to the glans by a frenulum , a highly vascularized tissue of the penis. The human foreskin contains a sheath of muscle tissue just below the skin, formerly known as the peripenic muscle and now called the dartos fascia, most of which is contained in the foreskin.

Elastic fibers are contained in the dartos fascia, which form a whorl at the tip of the foreskin. The whorl of fibers acts as a sphincter in infants, which opens to allow the passage of urine, but closes to protect the glans penis from foreign matter and contaminants. The dartos fascia is sensitive to temperature and expands and contracts with temperature changes. The dartos fascia is only loosely connected with the underlying tissue so it provides the skin mobility and elasticity of the penile skin.

According to the histological findings of the British Association of Urological Surgeons based on a research conducted on the autopsy of 22 foreskins, "the prepuce provides a large and important platform for several nerves and nerve endings", [4] and presents uniquely specialized sensory tissues such as the preputial mucosa and the ridged band.

Langerhans cells are immature dendritic cells that are found in all areas of the penile epithelium, [6] but are most superficial in the inner surface of the foreskin. The foreskin is present in non-human primates , including the chimpanzee. Eight weeks after fertilization, the foreskin begins to grow over the head of the penis, covering it completely by 16 weeks.

At this stage, the foreskin and glans share an epithelium mucous layer that fuses the two together. It remains this way until the foreskin separates from the glans. In children, the foreskin usually covers the glans completely but in adults it may not. During erection , the degree of automatic foreskin retraction varies considerably; in some adults, the foreskin remains covering all or some of the glans until retracted manually or by sexual activity.

This variation was regarded by Chengzu as an abnormal condition named 'prepuce redundant'. Frequent retraction and washing under the foreskin is suggested for all adults but particularly for those with a long, or 'redundant' foreskin. It is shown that manual foreskin retraction during childhood or even adulthood serves as a stimulant to normal development and automatic retraction of the foreskin, which suggests that many conditions affecting the foreskin may be prevented or cured behaviorally.

The World Health Organization states that there is "debate about the role of the foreskin, with possible functions including keeping the glans moist, protecting the developing penis in utero, or enhancing sexual pleasure due to the presence of nerve receptors". The foreskin protects the glans. The American Academy of Pediatricians' technical report on circumcision found that the foreskin tends to harbor micro-organisms that can lead to urinary tract infections in infants and tend to contribute to the transmission of sexually transmitted infections in adults.

The foreskin is specialized tissue that is packed with nerves and stretch receptors. They are most concentrated in the "ridged band", where the inner and outer foreskin layers meet, and least concentrated in the smooth inner layer of foreskin.

Compared to other hairless skin areas on the body, the Meissner's index was highest in the finger tip 0. The foreskin is the least sensitive hairless tissue of the body.

A study also found that "the number of these nerve endings decreases significantly after the teenage to young adult years when sexual activity begins. This makes it very difficult to propose any sexual function for Meissner's corpuscles.

A more feasible hypothesis is to regard them as a juvenile phenomenon, perhaps serving to protect the penis until the onset of puberty reveals its sexual function. Moses and Bailey , say that "it has not been demonstrated that [the foreskin] is associated with increased male sexual pleasure.

It was deduced that even a retracted foreskin would tend to reduce the stimulus to the corona and frenular areas, particularly on the outward stroke of intercourse. However, both studies concluded that there were no significant differences in sexual function between circumcised and uncircumcised men.

The World Health Organization states that "Although it has been argued that sexual function may diminish following circumcision due to the removal of the nerve endings in the foreskin and subsequent thickening of the epithelia of the glans, there is little evidence for this and studies are inconsistent. The Royal Dutch Medical Association states that many sexologists view the foreskin as "a complex, erotogenic structure that plays an important role 'in the mechanical function of the penis during sexual acts, such as penetrative intercourse and masturbation '.

In primates, the foreskin is present in the genitalia of both sexes and likely has been present for millions of years of evolution. In modern times, there is controversy regarding whether the foreskin is a vital or vestigial structure. He wrote, "It is often stated that the prepuce is a vestigial structure devoid of function However, it seems to be no accident that during the years when the child is incontinent the glans is completely clothed by the prepuce, for, deprived of this protection, the glans becomes susceptible to injury from contact with sodden clothes or napkin.

Regarding vestigial structures, Charles Darwin wrote, "An organ, when rendered useless, may well be variable, for its variations cannot be checked by natural selection. The foreskin can be involved in balanitis , phimosis , sexually transmitted infection and penile cancer.

Frenulum breve is a frenulum that is insufficiently long to allow the foreskin to fully retract, which may lead to discomfort during intercourse. Phimosis is a condition where the foreskin of an adult cannot be retracted properly. Phimosis can be treated by using topical steroid ointments and using lubricants during sex; for severe cases circumcision may be necessary.

A condition called paraphimosis may occur if a tight foreskin becomes trapped behind the glans and swells as a restrictive ring. This can cut off the blood supply, resulting in ischemia of the glans penis. Lichen sclerosus is a chronic, inflammatory skin condition that most commonly occurs in adult women, although it may also be seen in men and children.

Topical clobetasol propionate and mometasone furoate were proven effective in treating genital lichen sclerosus. Some birth defects of the foreskin can occur; all of them are rare. In aposthia there is no foreskin at birth, [32] : 37—39 in micropathia the foreskin doesn't cover the glans, [32] : 41—45 and in macroposthia, also called and congenital megaprepuce, the foreskin extends well past the end of the glans. It has been found that larger foreskins place uncircumcised men at an increased risk for HIV infection [33] most likely due to the larger surface area of inner foreskin and the high concentration of Langerhans cells.

Preputioplasty is the most common foreskin reconstruction technique, most often done when a boy is born with a foreskin that is too small; [34] : a similar procedure is performed to relieve a tight foreskin without resorting to circumcision. Circumcision is the removal of the foreskin, either partially or completely. For newborns, it may be done for religious requirements or personal preferences surrounding hygiene and aesthetics.

Other cultural or aesethetic practices include genital piercings involving the foreskin and slitting the foreskin. Foreskins obtained from circumcision procedures are frequently used by biochemical and micro-anatomical researchers to study the structure and proteins of human skin. In particular, foreskins obtained from newborns have been found to be useful in the manufacturing of more human skin. Foreskin fibroblasts have been used in biomedical research. David Marble sculpture. Year Painting of two naked males.

From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia. This article is about human foreskin. For foreskin in other mammals, see Penile sheath. Retractable fold of skin which covers and protects the glans of the penis.

Foreskin partially retracted over the glans penis , with a ridged band visible at the end of the foreskin. NHS Choices. Retrieved 21 September World Health Organization. Radcliffe Publishing. February BJU International. Retrieved 27 January Archived from the original PDF on May 31, Retrieved April 22, Potential HIV-1 target cells in the human penis.

Epidemiology of Urogenital Diseases. Beijing: People's Medical Publishing House. Tips on Puberty Health. Beijing: People's Education Press. General Surgery. Medicinski Pregled. The technical report was published in conjunction with an updated statement of policy on circumcision: American Academy of Pediatrics Task Force on Circumcision September Routledge; 14 January June Sexual Medicine. London, UK: John Murray;

In male dogs, the glans penis consists of two parts called the bulbus glandis and pars longa glandis. Read more. Cambridge University Press. How will a doctor reach a diagnosis? Walker; G. Infections of the penis.

Skin glans

Skin glans

Skin glans

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Common skin disorders of the penis - Buechner - - BJU International - Wiley Online Library

Various abnormalities can affect the skin of the penis. Some are bodywide skin disorders that affect the penis as well as other parts of the skin. Examples can include psoriasis , lichen planus , and seborrheic dermatitis. Some affect only the penis or affect the penis before they affect other areas.

The skin of the penis can also be affected by cancer. Growths on the penis are sometimes caused by infections, especially sexually transmitted diseases. One example is syphilis , which may cause flat pink or gray growths condylomata lata. Also, certain viral infections can cause one or more small, firm, raised skin growths genital warts , or condylomata acuminata or small, firm, dimpled growths molluscum contagiosum.

Scabies can cause small, itchy bumps. Lichen planus can cause small flat or raised spots on the head or shaft of the penis. They often itch. Occasionally, painful sores develop on the penis and in the gums called penogingival syndrome. Lichen planus usually resolves on its own. No treatment is required unless itching is bothersome.

Corticosteroid creams can relieve itching. Pearly penile papules are abnormal growths originating in the blood vessels of the penis. They appear as small, usually skin-colored growths shaped like domes or hairs on the shaft of the penis. No treatment is required. Balanitis xerotica obliterans also called lichen sclerosus et atrophicus occurs when long-term chronic inflammation causes the skin near the tip of the penis to harden and turn white.

The opening of the urethra is often surrounded by this hard white tissue, which eventually blocks the flow of urine and semen. Antibacterial, corticosteroid, or anti-inflammatory creams may relieve the inflammation, but if the urethra must be reopened, it is done surgically. Contact dermatitis is often caused by use of a latex condom in a man who is allergic to latex. Usually red, itchy spots appear. Sometimes the skin is broken or fluid leaks from around the spots. Affected men should instead use a synthetic non-latex condom.

Natural condoms do not protect adequately against human immunodeficiency virus infection. Local skin cancers of the penis can include. Paget disease of the nipple. Erythroplasia of Queyrat and Bowen disease of the penis are well-defined areas of reddish, velvety pigmentation on the glans erythroplasia of Queyrat or white-gray, thickened areas on the shaft Bowen disease , primarily in uncircumcised men.

Bowenoid papulosis involves smaller, often multiple, bumps papules on the shaft of the penis. Paget disease of the nipple not to be confused with Paget disease of bone is a rare cancer that can occur in locations other than the breasts, including the penis.

Doctors remove a sample of tissue for examination biopsy to determine the type of cancer and to make sure the cancer has not spread beyond the skin. Fluorouracil cream, a surgical procedure, or laser therapy may be used to remove the cancer.

Affected men should be regularly monitored for recurrence or spread. Merck and Co. From developing new therapies that treat and prevent disease to helping people in need, we are committed to improving health and well-being around the world. The Manual was first published in as a service to the community. Learn more about our commitment to Global Medical Knowledge. Common Health Topics. Infections of the penis. Lichen planus of the penis. Pearly penile papules. Balanitis xerotica obliterans. Contact dermatitis of the penis.

Local in situ skin cancers of the penis. Test your knowledge. Phimosis and paraphimosis are disorders of the penis. They both develop only in which of the following? Add to Any Platform. Click here for the Professional Version.

Balanitis Xerotica Obliterans. Erythroplasia of Queyrat. Shenot, MD. Was This Page Helpful? Yes No. Testicular Torsion.

Skin glans

Skin glans

Skin glans