Submission objectification porn-Feminist Perspectives on Objectification (Stanford Encyclopedia of Philosophy)

Jump to navigation. Carolyn West startled her audience at Belo Center for New Media with graphic images and videos to show the pervasiveness of black women being objectified in modern pornography. West is a researcher of domestic violence and sexual abuse, and said she never used to think about porn until she realized no one was looking at its intersection with race. She said lighter-skinned black women are seen as even more desirable or attractive as opposed to darker skin tones. Around 40 percent of sex trafficking victims are black, according to Victimsofcrimes.

Submission objectification porn

Objectificqtion as an individual has only instrumental value, she is clearly not regarded as an end in herself. Therefore, even though the view that humanity is completely destroyed when people exercise their sexuality is an unappealing one, it is not objectificaton to think that, in some cases, sexual desire and exercise of sexuality can undermine our rationality. For Marx, labour is the most distinctively human activity, and the product of labour is the exteriorisation of the worker's being. She argues that it is difficult to specify the marks and features of a term that plays a normative role in our mutually shared worldview. Men, then, are not the Mature women and porn ones to blame for women's situation. For instance, these feminists claim Submission objectification porn women in the obnectification industry consent to be used as objects simply out of lack of options available to Submission objectification porn within our patriarchal society. Here's what you're missing out on! The above procedure, however, can be problematic.

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Objectification is a notion central to feminist theory.

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Objectification is a notion central to feminist theory. In this entry, the focus is primarily on sexual objectification, objectification occurring in the sexual realm. Martha Nussbaum , has identified seven features that are involved in the idea of treating a person as an object:. The majority of the thinkers discussing objectification have taken it to be a morally problematic phenomenon.

This is particularly the case in feminist discussions of pornography. Anti-pornography feminists Catharine MacKinnon and Andrea Dworkin, influenced by Immanuel Kant's conception of objectification, have famously argued that, due to men's consumption of pornography, women as a group are reduced to the status of mere tools for men's purposes. Moreover, feminists like Sandra Bartky and Susan Bordo have argued that women are objectified through being excessively preoccupied with their appearance.

Important recent work by feminists has also been devoted to exploring the connection between objectivity and objectification. More recently, some thinkers, such as Martha Nussbaum, have challenged the idea that objectification is a necessarily negative phenomenon, arguing for the possibility of positive objectification. While treating a person as an object in one or more of the ways mentioned above is often problematic, Nussbaum argues that objectification can in some contexts take benign or even positive forms, and can constitute a valuable and enjoyable part of our lives.

Such an attempt, she argues, will only distort the phenomenon in question , forthcoming. Immanuel Kant's views on sexual objectification have been particularly influential for contemporary feminist discussions on this topic.

Kant thought that sexuality is extremely problematic when exercised outside the context of monogamous marriage, arguing that in such instances it leads to objectification. Objectification, for Kant, involves the lowering of a person, a being with humanity, to the status of an object. Humanity , for Kant, is an individual's rational nature and capacity for rational choice.

The characteristic feature of humanity is an individual's capacity for rationally setting and pursuing her own ends. A being with humanity is capable of deciding what is valuable, and of finding ways to realise and promote this value. Humanity is what is special about human beings. It distinguishes them from animals and inanimate objects.

It is crucial, for Kant, that each person respects humanity in others, as well as humanity in their own person. Humanity must never be treated merely as a means, but always at the same time as an end Kant , Kant is worried that when people exercise their sexuality outside the context of monogamous marriage, they treat humanity merely as a means for their sexual purposes.

The loved person loses what is special to her as a human being, her humanity, and is reduced to a thing, a mere sexual instrument. Kant's notion of objectification, therefore, focuses largely on instrumentality: the treatment of a person as a mere tool for the lover's purposes. The idea that within sexual relationships people are reduced to objects, that they lose their rational nature, is an extreme one.

Halwani rightly points out that this reduction to the status of an object rarely happens in sexual objectification. Therefore, even though the view that humanity is completely destroyed when people exercise their sexuality is an unappealing one, it is not unreasonable to think that, in some cases, sexual desire and exercise of sexuality can undermine our rationality. Kant thought that in theory both men and women can be objectified, but he was well aware that in practice women are the most common victims of objectification.

This is obvious in Kant's discussions of prostitution and concubinage. Exercise of sexuality within these morally problematic sexual contexts leads to the reduction of women prostitutes and concubines to men's objects of appetite. Kant defines prostitution as the offer for profit of one's person for another's sexual gratification. A person, Kant holds, cannot allow others to use her body sexually in exchange for money without losing her humanity and becoming an object. He is not entitled to sell a limb, not even one of his teeth.

Kant blames the prostitute for her objectification. He takes her to be responsible for sacrificing her humanity, in offering herself as an object for the satisfaction of the clients' sexual desires. The other relationship in which objectification is, for Kant, clearly present is concubinage.

According to Kant, concubinage is the non-commodified sexual relationship between a man and more than one woman the concubines. Kant takes concubinage to be a purely sexual relationship in which all parties aim at the satisfaction of their sexual desires Kant Lectures on Ethics , The inequality that is involved in this relationship makes it problematic.

Since body and self are for Kant inseparable and together they constitute the person, in surrendering her body her sex exclusively to her male partner, the woman surrenders her whole person to the man, allowing him to possess it. The man, by contrast, who has more than one sexual partner, does not exclusively surrender himself to the woman, and so he does not allow her to possess his person.

The only relationship in which two people can exercise their sexuality without the fear of reducing themselves to objects is monogamous marriage. Monogamy is required to ensure that there is equality and reciprocity in the surrender and ownership of the two spouses' persons. The spouses exclusively surrender their persons to one another, so neither of them is in danger of losing his or her person and becoming an object.

Furthermore, this mutual exchange of the two spouses' persons must, for Kant, be legally enforced. He wants something external, the law, to guarantee this lifelong ownership of the two parties' persons in marriage. He argues that this legal obligation to surrender one's person to one's spouses makes marriage different from a monogamous relationship between two unmarried partners.

Like Kant, anti-pornography feminists Catharine MacKinnon and Andrea Dworkin take inequality to be tightly linked to objectification. In the eyes of both these feminists and Kant, there is the powerful objectifier on the one hand, and on the other hand there exists his powerless victim. Due to their unequal power, the former objectifies the latter.

Kant is concerned with inequality taking place within polygamous relationships. MacKinnon and Dworkin, on the other hand, believe that inequality is a much more widespread and pervasive phenomenon. It covers all aspects of our society. MacKinnon and Dworkin emphasise that we live in a world of gender inequality. A person's gender is, for MacKinnon, clearly distinguished from a person's sex.

Gender, being a man or a woman, is socially constructed, whereas sex, being male or female, is biologically defined. Within our patriarchal societies, men and women have clearly defined roles: women all women, women as a group are objectified, whereas men all men, men as a group are their objectifiers MacKinnon , 6, 32—45, 50; MacKinnon a, —4, , —40; Haslanger , 98— For more on sex and gender, see also the entries feminist perspectives on sex and gender and feminist perspectives on power.

Even though MacKinnon does acknowledge that a female sex individual can be an objectifier and a male sex individual can be objectified, she takes it that the former is a man and the latter is a woman, since in her view a man gender is by definition the objectifier and a woman gender is by definition the objectified.

This situation of gender inequality which troubles our societies and is so tightly linked to the objectification of women is, MacKinnon and Dworkin believe, created and sustained by men's consumption of pornography. According to MacKinnon, pornography is responsible for both men's and women's conception of women as objects available for men's consumption. MacKinnon and Dworkin's understanding of objectification is similar to Kant's. For both of them, like for Kant, objectification involves treating a person, someone with humanity, as an object of merely instrumental worth, and consequently reducing this person to the status of an object for use.

The objectified individual is made into a tool for others' sexual purposes. Objectification, therefore, constitutes a serious harm to a person's humanity. When objectification occurs, a person is depersonalised, so that no individuality or integrity is available socially or in what is an extremely circumscribed privacy. When a person is treated as less than human, as merely an object for another's use, she becomes, according to Dworkin, less than human. In this way, her humanity is harmed by being diminished.

MacKinnon too describes objectification is similar terms. Insofar as an individual has only instrumental value, she is clearly not regarded as an end in herself.

MacKinnon and Dworkin have argued that, even if women consent to their being used as mere means for men's sexual purposes, this is not sufficient to make such use permissible.

For instance, these feminists claim that women in the pornographic industry consent to be used as objects simply out of lack of options available to them within our patriarchal society. Women's consent, therefore, is not true consent. This does not only hold for women in pornography. For MacKinnon and Dworkin, all women's consent to be sexually used by men cannot be true consent under the existing conditions of gender inequality. They hold that women are not truly blameworthy for their reduction to things of merely instrumental value.

Women's objectification is demanded and inflicted by men in our societies. It is men who want, and also, Dworkin claims, need to use women as objects, and demand them to be object-like Dworkin , —3.

Kant compares the objectified individual to a lemon, used and discarded afterwards, and elsewhere to a steak consumed by people for the satisfaction of their hunger Kant Lectures on Ethics , and In a similar manner, MacKinnon blames pornography for teaching its consumers that women exist to be used by men. A woman, according to MacKinnon, becomes comparable to a cup a thing , and as such she is valued only for how she looks and how she can be used MacKinnon , Kant took exercise of sexuality to be inherently problematic.

For Dworkin and MacKinnon, on the other hand, what is problematic is not sexuality per se, but rather sexuality as constructed through pornography. These feminists believe that objectification is a consequence of gender inequality and it is created and sustained by pornography's existence and consumption.

MacKinnon fears that use can easily be followed by violence and abuse. Since women are things as opposed to human beings , it seems to men that there is nothing problematic with abusing them. The object status of women, then, is the cause of men seeing nothing problematic with violent behaviour towards women. Men … create scenes in which women desperately want to be bound, battered, tortured, humiliated, and killed. Or merely taken and used. Pornography, then, teaches its consumers that, not only is it permissible to treat women in these ways, but also that women themselves enjoy being used, violated and abused by men.

The idea that pornography causes men to treat women as objects to be used and abused has been defended by a number of feminists. Alison Assiter argues that what is wrong with pornography is that it reinforces desires on the part of men to treat women as objects as mere means to achieve their purposes Assiter , Rae Langton also discusses the possibility of such a causal connection between men's consumption of pornography and women's objectification.

MacKinnon, however, holds that the connection between men's use of pornography and women's objectification is not simply a causal one. Men's consumption of pornography, then, is constitutes women's objectification. This is admittedly a puzzling claim, but one which I will not delve into further here.

Detailed defenses of the claim have been offered by Melinda Vadas Vadas and Rae Langton Langton , and a criticism has been put forward by Jennifer Saul Saul Kant thought that the solution to sexual objectification is marriage. This is because he conceived this relationship as one of perfect equality and reciprocity between the spouses.

Each of them surrenders his or her person to the other and receives the person of the other in return.

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Submission objectification porn

Submission objectification porn

Submission objectification porn

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Submission objectification porn

Submission objectification porn