Transmission of feline hiv-Feline Immunodeficiency Virus | Cornell University College of Veterinary Medicine

Electronic address: catvet purdue. Conflicting accounts have been published in the veterinary literature regarding transmission of feline immunodeficiency virus FIV between cohabiting cats in mixed households, and the mechanics of possible casual transmission, if it occurs, are poorly understood. Similarly, there are conflicting reports of vertical transmission of FIV. The aim of the present study was to document the FIV serological status of cats taken into two rescue shelters. A study was performed that combined a retrospective review of records of FIV serological status at intake Test 1 and prospective FIV serological testing Tests 2 and 3.

Transmission of feline hiv

Transmission of feline hiv

Transmission of feline hiv

Transmission of feline hiv

Two forms of antiviral therapy are sometimes used in FIV-infected cats: Interferons are a group of naturally-produced compounds that have anti-viral effects and modify immune responses. If any cats test positive for FIV Transmission of feline hiv should be removed, the colony isolated, and the remaining cats retested after months. Provide a quiet place for your cat to rest indoors and away from other cats who could promote disease. Diabetes treatment is based on how severe the signs of disease are and whether there are any other health issues that could complicate therapy. FIV usually causes disease through immunosuppression — the normal immune responses of the cat are compromised, leading to an increased susceptibility to other infections and diseases. However, as the risk of transmission by social contact such as Trqnsmission food bowls and mutual grooming is low, many owners decide to continue keeping all their cats together.

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Most cats do not die from FIV. Transmission of feline hiv attacks the cells of the immune system, which leads to FAIDS feline acquired immune deficiency syndromewhich is where the immune system has been compromised. It may also be necessary for those who developed gingivitis to see a veterinary dental specialist. Bites are the main culprit for transmission, so preventing cats from fighting and being around strays can lower the risk of infection. There are also anti-inflammatory drugs that can be Transmission of feline hiv to help combat inflammation in multiple areas. Rates are significantly higher 15 percent or more in cats that are sick or at high risk of infection. The cat hv be weaker and will felins ill more frequently. Feline immunodeficiency virus. A cat with FIV can live a long life if you offer the needed care and attention. It is thought that this is due to antibodies transferred to the kittens via the mother's milk. These infections may cause complications and Filtro porn often reoccur. Journal of Virology Considering the average lifespan of a cat is years, five years is quite a long time in cat terms. It can take up to 60 days before a cat tests positive for feline aids. However, FIV can be passed on to the female from the biting that goes along with mating.

FIV is nothing to meow about!

  • Feline immunodeficiency virus FIV is a lentivirus that affects cats worldwide, with 2.
  • This disease suppresses the immune system, making the cat susceptible to different infections and diseases.
  • First discovered in a California cattery in , FIV resembles the human immunodeficiency virus that causes AIDS in that both are retroviruses that target their hosts' immune systems.
  • What is FIV?
  • In infected cats, feline immunodeficiency virus FIV attacks the immune system, leaving the cat vulnerable to many other infections.
  • Myths persist about how HIV is transmitted.

Skip to content. As a cat parent, it is important to recognize the signs and symptoms of common illnesses so you can seek veterinary help for your feline friend in a timely manner if necessary.

Read on for information about diseases and other medical inflictions that frequently impact cats. Cancer is a class of diseases in which cells grow uncontrollably, invade surrounding tissue and may spread to other areas of the body. As with people, cats can get various kinds of cancer. The disease can be localized confined to one area, like a tumor or generalized spread throughout the body. However, we do know that both hereditary and environmental factors can lead to the development of cancer in cats.

The GI form of LSA the most common form can cause a large mass in the stomach or intestine or diffuse infiltration throughout the intestinal tract. It is important to take your cat to your veterinarian if any evidence of disease is noted.

LSA is not curable, however, most cats respond well to treatment. Contact your veterinarian immediately if your cat shows any of the clinical signs mentioned on the list above. Should your cat receive a diagnosis of cancer, you may wish to consult a veterinary oncologist, often employed by specialty veterinary practices and teaching hospitals.

Diabetes in cats is a complex disease caused by either a lack of the hormone insulin or an inadequate response to insulin. After a cat eats, her digestive system breaks food into various components, including glucose—which is carried into her cells by insulin. When a cat does not produce insulin or cannot utilize it normally, her blood sugar levels elevate. The result is hyperglycemia, which, if left untreated, can cause many complicated health problems for a cat.

It is important to understand that diabetes is considered a manageable disorder—and many diabetic cats can lead happy, healthy lives. Some may even go into remission! Cats with type II diabetes can progress to type I diabetes.

In fact, by the time most cats are diagnosed with diabetes, they are identified as having the type I disorder.

These cats require insulin therapy for survival. Cats with type II disease may respond to other forms of therapy. The exact cause of diabetes is unknown. Genetics, pancreatic disease, certain medications and abnormal protein deposits in the pancreas can play a role in causing this disorder. The most important factors in the development of diabetes seem to be obesity, gender male cats are more commonly afflicted than females and age.

To properly diagnose diabetes, your veterinarian will collect information about clinical signs, perform a physical examination and check blood work and urinalysis.

This will lessen the chance that her sugar levels will swing either too high or too low. It is also important to avoid feeding your diabetic cat treats that are high in glucose. A proper diet and regular exercise can go a long way to avoid the development of feline diabetes. Aside from other negative effects, obesity is known to contribute to insulin resistance. If your cat is showing any abnormal clinical signs as listed above, make an appointment to see your veterinarian immediately.

If a diabetic cat is not treated, he can develop kidney disease, neurological disorders or other metabolic diseases. Cats with type I diabetes require insulin therapy for survival.

Cats infected with feline immunodeficiency virus FIV may not show symptoms until years after the initial infection occurred. This makes the cat susceptible to various secondary infections. Infected cats receiving supportive medical care and kept in a stress-free, indoor environment can live relatively comfortable lives for months to years before the disease reaches its chronic stages.

An FIV-infected cat may not show any symptoms for years. Once symptoms do develop, however, they may continually progress—or a cat may show signs of sickness interspersed with health for years. If your cat is demonstrating any of the following symptoms, please have examined by your veterinarian:.

If you suspect your cat has FIV, have him examined and tested by your veterinarian right away. During your visit, be ready to describe any symptoms that you have detected, no matter how minute they seem. Also make sure to keep your cat indoors, away from other felines who might possibly be infected or whom he could infect, until you have a diagnosis.

Without proper treatment, the secondary infections that can occur as a consequence of FIV can progress to life-threatening conditions. Unfortunately, there is no specific antiviral treatment for FIV.

Cats can carry the virus for a long time before symptoms appear. Therefore, treatment focuses mainly on extending the asymptomatic period or, if symptoms have set in, on easing the secondary effects of the virus. Your veterinarian may prescribe some of the following treatments:. It is one of the most commonly diagnosed causes of disease and death in domestic cats. Young kittens and cats less than one year of age are most susceptible to the virus. Healthy cats over three months of age and vaccinated for FeLV are highly unlikely to contract the virus from another cat.

Spread by infected mosquitoes, heartworm is increasingly being recognized as an underlying cause of health problems in domestic cats. Cats are an atypical host for heartworms. Despite its name, heartworm primarily causes lung disease in cats. It is an important concern for any cat owner living in areas densely populated by mosquitoes, and prevention should be discussed with a veterinarian.

The cat is not a natural host for the heartworm parasite, Dirofilaria immitis, and so the heartworm is not likely to complete its entire life cycle. When a mosquito carrying the heartworm parasite, Dirofilaria immitis, bites a cat, larvae are transmitted into the bloodstream.

The larvae migrate toward the heart over a period of around four to six months, maturing as they go, then settle in the heart, pulmonary arteries and blood vessels of the lungs. Because a domestic cat is not a natural host for the heartworm parasite, many of the worms die. These—along with the living worms—cause severe inflammatory and immune responses in an infected cat.

Cats of all ages, living in any region, can contract heartworm, but the disease is more prevalent in felines who live in areas densely populated by mosquitoes. Outdoor cats are at greater risk because of increased exposure to mosquitoes. The heartworm infection can be especially life-threatening to kittens and older cats. Breathing difficulties that occur in the first stage of heartworm disease, caused by worms newly arriving in the heart and lungs, were likely previously diagnosed as feline asthma or bronchitis.

However, these breathing problems are now thought to have actually been due to what is now called heartworm-associated respiratory disease HARD. Diagnosing Heartworm Disease Heartworm disease is not as easily diagnosed in cats as it is in dogs.

There are currently no products in the United States approved for treating feline heartworm infection. If an infected cat shows symptoms of lung disease, the cat can be given a cortisone-like medication as needed. Medication can also be given to help control coughing and vomiting.

Although some cats are able to fight the infection on their own, the following can occur if heartworms are not monitored and treated:.

Many pet parents eagerly open their windows to enjoy the weather during the summer months. Unfortunately, unscreened windows pose a real danger to cats, who fall out of them so often that the veterinary profession has a name for the complaint—High-Rise Syndrome. Falls can result in shattered jaws, punctured lungs, broken limbs and pelvises—and even death. Rabies is a viral disease that affects the brain and spinal cord of all mammals, including cats, dogs and humans.

This preventable disease has been reported in every state except Hawaii. Note: Do not attempt to handle or capture a wild animal who is acting strangely i. Report the animal to local animal control officers as soon as possible.

Not uncommon in cats, this highly contagious disease can lead to patchy, circular areas of hair loss with central red rings. Also known as dermatophytosis, ringworm often spreads to other pets in the household—and to humans, too.

A cat can get ringworm directly through contact with an infected animal—or indirectly through contact with bedding, dishes and other materials that have been contaminated with the skin cells or hairs of infected animals.

Ringworm spores are notoriously hardy and can survive in the environment for more than a year! You should also thoroughly wash your hands after you touch your cat. If your veterinarian has diagnosed your cat with ringworm, he or she will explain what you must do to prevent the fungus from spreading to your other pets—and to the human members of the household. Your veterinarian may recommend that you do the following:.

Symptoms differ depending on the cause and location of the infection, but some common clinical signs of upper respiratory problems in cats include:. A brief exam by a veterinarian will help to determine if your cat requires medication, has a fever or is dehydrated. Avoid self-diagnosis, since your cat may be infectious and require isolation, antibiotics or additional veterinary care.

Left untreated, some upper respiratory infections can progress to pneumonia or have other serious complications, such as blindness or chronic breathing difficulties. Sometimes cats demonstrate few to no outward signs of infection, and the infestation can go undetected despite being a potentially serious health problem. Some feline parasitic worms are hazards for human health as well.

Outdoor cats and those who are routinely exposed to soil where other animals defecate are prone to worms. Kittens and cats who do not receive regular preventative health care are most at risk for developing complications associated with internal parasites.

Symptoms differ depending on the type of parasite and the location of infection, but some common clinical signs include:. Avoid self-diagnosis, since worms are not always visible or identifiable.

A large number of roundworm eggs can accumulate where cats defecate. People, especially children, who ingest such eggs can develop serious health problems, such as blindness, encephalitis and other organ damage.

Treatment of blindness caused by roundworm may involve surgical removal. Hookworm larvae can penetrate human skin and cause lesions.

People can acquire tapeworms through the ingestion of an infected flea, although this is rare. You are here Pet Care Cat Care.

It is thought that this is due to antibodies transferred to the kittens via the mother's milk. Many struggle to decide if this vaccine should be given, since it makes a cat test positive for the infection. Since false-positive results may occur, veterinarians recommend that positive results be confirmed using a test with a different format. Here are some things to consider when deciding whether treatment as prevention is right for you and your partner: Not everyone taking HIV medicine has an undetectable viral load. In fact, anal sex is the riskiest type of sex for getting or transmitting HIV. Pedersen N If your cat has recently been exposed to an infected cat.

Transmission of feline hiv

Transmission of feline hiv

Transmission of feline hiv

Transmission of feline hiv. Signs of Feline Immunodeficiency Virus

Factors that may increase the risk of transmitting HIV through oral sex are ejaculation in the mouth with oral ulcers, bleeding gums, genital sores, and the presence of other sexually transmitted diseases STDs , which may or may not be visible.

You can get other STDs from oral sex. And, if you get feces in your mouth during anilingus, you can get hepatitis A and B, parasites like Giardia , and bacteria like Shigella , Salmonella , Campylobacter , and E.

Some of the most common STDs include gonorrhea, chlamydia, syphilis, trichomoniasis, human papillomavirus HPV , genital herpes, and hepatitis. The only way to know for sure if you have an STD is to get tested. If the STD causes irritation of the skin for example, from syphilis, herpes, or human papillomavirus , breaks or sores may make it easier for HIV to enter the body during sexual contact. Even STDs that cause no breaks or open sores for example, chlamydia, gonorrhea, trichomoniasis can increase your risk by causing inflammation that increases the number of cells that can serve as targets for HIV.

Treatment is a powerful tool for preventing sexual transmission of HIV. But it works only as long as the HIV-positive partner gets and keeps an undetectable viral load. Here are some things to consider when deciding whether treatment as prevention is right for you and your partner:. Important Note: Consider using condoms if either partner is concerned about getting or transmitting other STDs.

Your risk for getting HIV is very high if you use needles or works such as cookers, cotton, or water after someone with HIV has used them.

People who inject drugs, hormones, steroids, or silicone can get HIV by sharing needles or syringes and other injection equipment. Stopping injection and other drug use can lower your chances of getting HIV a lot. You may need help to stop or cut down using drugs, but many resources are available.

If you keep injecting drugs, you can lower your risk for getting HIV by using only new, sterile needles and works each time you inject. Never share needles or works. You may be more likely to have unplanned and unprotected sex, have a harder time using a condom the right way every time you have sex, have more sexual partners, or use other drugs, including injection drugs or meth. Those behaviors can increase your risk of exposure to HIV.

Being drunk or high affects your ability to make safe choices. Therapy, medicines, and other methods are available to help you stop or cut down on drinking or using drugs.

Talk with a counselor, doctor, or other health care provider about options that might be right for you. The new strain of HIV can replace the original strain or remain along with the original strain. The effects of superinfection differ from person to person. Research suggests that a hard-to-treat superinfection is rare. The risk of health care workers being exposed to HIV on the job occupational exposure is very low, especially if they use protective practices and personal protective equipment to prevent HIV and other blood-borne infections.

For health care workers on the job, the main risk of HIV transmission is from being stuck with an HIV-contaminated needle or other sharp object. However, even this risk is small. Although HIV transmission is possible in health care settings, it is extremely rare.

Careful practice of infection control, including universal precautions using protective practices and personal protective equipment to prevent HIV and other blood-borne infections , protects patients as well as health care providers from possible HIV transmission in medical and dental offices and hospitals.

It is important to know that you cannot get HIV from donating blood. Blood collection procedures are highly regulated and safe. Only certain body fluids—blood, semen cum , pre-seminal fluid pre-cum , rectal fluids, vaginal fluids, and breast milk—from a person with HIV can transmit HIV.

See How is HIV passed from one person to another? However, it is possible to get HIV from a reused or not properly sterilized tattoo or piercing needle or other equipment, or from contaminated ink. The risk of getting HIV this way is very low, but the risk increases when the person doing the procedure is unlicensed, because of the potential for unsanitary practices such as sharing needles or ink.

If you get a tattoo or a body piercing, be sure that the person doing the procedure is properly licensed and that they use only new or sterilized needles, ink, and other supplies. Even if the food contained small amounts of HIV-infected blood or semen, exposure to the air, heat from cooking, and stomach acid would destroy the virus.

The only known cases are among infants. Case reports of female-to-female transmission of HIV are rare. The well-documented risk of female-to-male transmission shows that vaginal fluids and menstrual blood may contain the virus and that exposure to these fluids through mucous membranes in the vagina or mouth could potentially lead to HIV infection.

Some groups of people in the United States are more likely to get HIV than others because of many factors, including the status of their sex partners, their risk behaviors, and where they live.

When you live in a community where many people have HIV infection, the chances of having sex or sharing needles or other injection equipment with someone who has HIV are higher. Within any community, the prevalence of HIV can vary among different populations. Gay and bisexual men have the largest number of new diagnoses in the United States. Also, transgender women who have sex with men are among the groups at highest risk for HIV infection, and injection drug users remain at significant risk for getting HIV.

Risky behaviors, like having anal or vaginal sex without using a condom or taking medicines to prevent or treat HIV, and sharing needles or syringes play a big role in HIV transmission. Anal sex is the highest-risk sexual behavior. If you do have HIV, being the insertive partner or top for anal sex is the highest-risk sexual activity for transmitting HIV. But there are more tools available today to prevent HIV than ever before.

Choosing less risky sexual behaviors, taking medicines to prevent and treat HIV, and using condoms with lubricants are all highly effective ways to reduce the risk of getting or transmitting HIV. Learn more about these and other strategies to prevent HIV.

Skip directly to site content Skip directly to page options Skip directly to A-Z link. Section Navigation. HIV Transmission. Minus Related Pages. On This Page. How is HIV passed from one person to another? For the HIV-negative partner, receptive anal sex bottoming is the highest-risk sexual behavior, but you can also get HIV from insertive anal sex topping.

Sharing needles or syringes, rinse water, or other equipment works used to prepare drugs for injection with someone who has HIV. HIV can live in a used needle up to 42 days depending on temperature and other factors. Less commonly, HIV may be spread From mother to child during pregnancy, birth, or breastfeeding. Although the risk can be high if a mother is living with HIV and not taking medicine, recommendations to test all pregnant women for HIV and start HIV treatment immediately have lowered the number of babies who are born with HIV.

No cure currently exists for FIV, but vaccination can help protect your cat from becoming infected with the virus. The vaccination is especially recommended for outdoor cats due to their increased risk of exposure to the virus. FIV passes through three separate stages-acute, latent and final-after your cat becomes infected. The acute first phase is when the first clinical signs of disease show up. These occur about six weeks after the cat has been infected and include swollen lymph nodes , a decreased white blood cell count and fever.

The second latent stage may last for many years and is marked by a lack of indications of illness. Although a cat does not appear to be ill, her immune system is being damaged by the virus. Cats in the latent stage of FIV can still shed the virus and should not be exposed to other cats, especially those that have not been exposed to the virus.

The third and final stage of the disease begins when secondary infections take over. Indications of this stage can include lethargy, fever, appetite and weight loss, and swollen lymph nodes. Many cats in third stage FIV develop anemia, pneumonia, skin problems, ear infections, neurological problems, cancers, eye problems, chronic mouth infections or gastrointestinal problems. Death usually occurs within a year of the third stage clinical signs developing. When the virus was first discovered, the long-term outlook for FIV-infected cats was bleak, and veterinarians routinely recommended euthanizing infected animals.

Today, cats with FIV can live relatively normal life spans before becoming seriously ill.

Feline Immunodeficiency Virus - fighting cat disease

In infected cats, feline immunodeficiency virus FIV attacks the immune system, leaving the cat vulnerable to many other infections. Although cats infected with FIV may appear normal for years, they eventually suffer from this immune deficiency, which allows normally harmless bacteria, viruses, protozoa, and fungi found in the everyday environment to potentially cause severe illnesses. In spite of this, recent studies suggest that cats with FIV commonly live normal life spans, as long as they are not also infected with feline leukemia virus.

FIV-infected cats are found worldwide, but the prevalence of infection varies greatly. In the United States, approximately 1. Rates are significantly higher 15 percent or more in cats that are sick or at high risk of infection.

Because biting is the most efficient means of viral transmission, free-roaming, aggressive male cats are the most frequently infected , while cats housed exclusively indoors are much less likely to be infected.

The primary mode of transmission for FIV is through bite wounds. Casual, non-aggressive contact does not appear to be an efficient route of spreading the virus. As a result, cats in households with stable social structures where housemates do not fight are at little risk of acquiring FIV infections.

On rare occasions infection is transmitted from an infected mother cat to her kittens, usually during passage through the birth canal or when the newborn kittens ingest infected milk. Sexual contact is not a major means of spreading FIV. Clinical Signs Early in the course of infection, the virus is carried to nearby lymph nodes, where it reproduces in white blood cells known as T-lymphocytes.

The virus then spreads to other lymph nodes throughout the body, resulting in a generalized but usually temporary enlargement of the lymph nodes, often accompanied by fever. This stage of infection may pass unnoticed unless the lymph nodes are greatly enlarged. An infected cat's health may deteriorate progressively or be characterized by recurrent illness interspersed with periods of relative health. Sometimes not appearing for years after infection, signs of immunodeficiency can appear anywhere throughout the body.

Poor coat condition and persistent fever with a loss of appetite are common in infected cats. Inflammation of the gums gingivitis and mouth stomatitis and chronic or recurrent infections of the skin, eyes, urinary bladder, and upper respiratory tract are often present.

Persistent diarrhea can also be a problem, as can a variety of eye conditions. Some infected cats experience seizures, behavior changes, and other neurological disorders. Slow but progressive weight loss is common in cats with FIV, often followed by severe wasting late in the disease process.

Several kinds of cancer and blood diseases are much more common in affected cats. These techniques are dependent upon the host cat mounting an immune response to FIV virus. If a host cat has not had sufficient time after exposure to mount an immune response or if the host cannot mount an immune response due to immunosuppression, antibodies may not be detected in a cat that is actually infected with FIV.

Positive results Because few, if any, cats ever eliminate infection, the presence of antibodies indicates that a cat is infected with FIV.

This test can be performed by most veterinary diagnostic laboratories and also is available in kit form for use in veterinary clinics. Since false-positive results may occur, veterinarians recommend that positive results be confirmed using a test with a different format. Infected mother cats transfer FIV antibodies to nursing kittens, so kittens born to infected mothers may receive positive test results for several months after birth.

However, few of these kittens actually are or will become infected. To clarify their infection status, kittens younger than six months of age that test positive for FIV should be retested at day intervals until they are at least six months old. FIV vaccines cause a vaccinated cat to produce antibodies against the FIV virus that can be difficult to distinguish from those produced by a cat in response to natural infection with FIV.

In most cases, this suggests that a cat is not infected. However, it usually takes eight to 12 weeks after infection for detectable levels of antibody to appear in the bloodstream, so testing performed during this interval may result in false negative results. Therefore, antibody-negative cats that have had contact with a cat that is either infected with FIV or has an unknown FIV status, such as through the bite of an unknown cat, should be retested a minimum of 60 days after their most recent exposure.

On very rare occasions, cats in the later stages of FIV infection may test negative on FIV antibody tests because their immune systems are so compromised that they no longer produce detectable levels of antibody. Polymerase chain reaction PCR tests are designed to detect short segments of a virus's genetic material.

This test does not rely upon the detection of antibodies to FIV that are produced by the host cat, but rather tests for the presence of the FIV virus itself by detecting viral DNA. While antibody-based tests are ideal screening tests for infection, in certain situations such as confirming infection in antibody-positive kittens or determining infection of cats vaccinated with antibody-eliciting FIV vaccines , PCR-based tests are theoretically superior.

Although PCR testing methods offer promise, these techniques result in relatively high numbers of false-positive and false-negative results, so they are not routinely being recommended. Recent advances in this technology, however, have prompted hope that PCR based techniques may eventually improve our ability to accurately diagnose FIV.

It is important to realize, however, that while it is impossible to predict the survival of a given cat infected with FIV, cats infected with FIV can live ostensibly normal lives for years if managed appropriately.

Once an FIV infected cat has experienced one or more severe illnesses as a result of infection, however, or if persistent fever and weight loss are present, the prognosis is generally less favorable. They should be fed nutritionally complete and balanced diets , and uncooked food, such as raw meat and eggs, and unpasteurized dairy products should be avoided to minimize the risk of food-borne bacterial and parasitic infections.

Wellness visits for FIV-infected cats should be scheduled at least every six months. A detailed physical examination of all body systems will be performed by your veterinarian with special attention to the health of the gums, eyes, skin, and lymph nodes. Your cat's weight will be measured accurately and recorded, because weight loss is often the first sign of deterioration.

A complete blood count, serum biochemical analysis, and a urine analysis should be performed annually. Vigilance and close monitoring of the health and behavior of FIV-infected cats is even more important than it is for uninfected cats. Alert your veterinarian to any changes in your cat's health as soon as possible. While some antiviral therapies have been shown to benefit some FIV-infected cats with seizures or stomatitis inflammation of the oral cavity and to decrease the amount of virus that they shed into the environment, there is no definitive evidence that any antiviral therapy will prolong the lives of cats with FIV.

The development of effective treatment options for FIV is the subject of significant research. Prevention The only sure way to protect cats is to prevent their exposure to the virus. Cat bites are the major means by which infection is transmitted, so keeping cats indoors, away from potentially infected cats that might bite them, markedly reduces their likelihood of contracting FIV infection.

To reduce the chance of indoor cats becoming infected, it is ideal to assure that only infection-free cats are brought into a household occupied by uninfected cats. In some cases, separation of infected from non-infected cats is possible in a household, and this is ideal if infected cats must be brought into occupied by non-infected cats. Unfortunately, many FIV-infected cats are not diagnosed until after they have lived for years with other cats.

In such cases, all the other cats in the household should be tested. Ideally, all infected cats should be separated from the noninfected ones to eliminate the potential for FIV transmission. It is important to realize, however, that since FIV is transmitted primarily by bite wounds, transmission from an infected cat to an uninfected cat is much less likely in households that have stable social structures i.

FIV will not survive for more than a few hours in most environments. However, FIV-infected cats are frequently infected with other infectious agents that may pose some threat to a newcomer.

A dilute solution of household bleach four ounces of bleach in 1 gallon of water makes an excellent disinfectant. Vacuuming carpets and mopping floors with an appropriate cleanser is also recommended. Any new cats or kittens should be properly vaccinated against other infectious agents before entering the household. Vaccines to help protect against FIV infection are now available, although these are not considered core vaccines for cats.

Not all vaccinated cats will be protected by the vaccine, so preventing exposure is important, even for vaccinated cats. As discussed above, vaccination will impact future FIV test results, and any vaccination carries the risk of inducing vaccine—associated-sarcoma a type of cancer in cats, so it is important that you discuss the advantages and disadvantages of vaccination with your veterinarian to help you decide whether FIV vaccines should be administered to your cat.

Human health concerns Although FIV is similar to HIV the human immunodeficiency virus and causes a feline disease that is similar to AIDS acquired immune deficiency syndrome in humans, it is a highly species-specific virus that infects only felines. There is currently no evidence that FIV can infect or cause disease in humans.

FIV infection sometimes leads to gingivitis , painful inflammation of the gums. Some antiviral therapies have been shown to help FIV-infected cats suffering from inflammation of the gums gingivitis and mouth stomatitis. If your cat goes outdoors unsupervised or lives with other cats that might be infected with FIV, your veterinarian may suggest periodically testing her for FIV. Why should I have my cat tested for FIV? Early detection will help you maintain the health of your own cat and h elp prevent spreading infection to other cats.

Updated June Reasons a cat should be tested If your cat has never been tested. If your cat is sick, even if it tested free of infection in the past but subsequent exposure can't be ruled out. When cats are newly adopted , whether or not they will be entering a household with other cats.

If your cat has recently been exposed to an infected cat. If your cat is exposed to cats that may be infected for example, if your cat goes outdoors unsupervised or lives with other cats that might be infected.

Your veterinarian may suggest testing periodically yearly as long as your cat is exposed to potentially infected cats. If you're considering vaccinating with an FIV vaccine.

Transmission of feline hiv