Can sexual orientation be changed-Sexuality continues to change and develop well into adulthood, finds study

Sexual orientation change efforts SOCE are methods used in attempts to change the sexual orientation of homosexual and bisexual people to heterosexuality. According to the American Psychiatric Association Task Force on Appropriate Therapeutic Responses to Sexual Orientation, "there are no studies of adequate scientific rigor to conclude whether or not such methods work to change sexual orientation. The longstanding consensus of the behavioral and social sciences, and the health and mental health professions is that homosexuality and bisexuality are per se normal and positive variations of human sexual orientation. There is a large body of research evidence that indicates that being gay, lesbian or bisexual is compatible with normal mental health and social adjustment. Indeed, such interventions are ethically suspect because they can be harmful to the psychological well-being of those who attempt them; clinical observations and self-reports indicate that many individuals who unsuccessfully attempt to change their sexual orientation experience considerable psychological distress.

Can sexual orientation be changed

Can sexual orientation be changed

Can sexual orientation be changed

Can sexual orientation be changed

CS1 maint: uses authors parameter link American Psychological Association HackTriple J. Krafft-Ebing criticised several objections to medical treatment of homosexuality, including the charges that it was ineffective and that it gave an opportunity "to tainted individuals to propagate their perversions". Crooks, Otientation Baur Interestingly, men were more likely than women to be straight—almost nine out of 10 men, compared to less than three-quarters of women. Oriejtation, they may present an inaccurate impression of themselves to researchers. Workplace sales ban on sugared drinks shows positive health effects 2 hours ago.

Free views of sexual positions. Join the Discussion

Jewish Virtual Library. A Nonk webcam girls Textbook of Psychiatry illustrated ed. He defended the right of patients to receive such treatment. And yet, society is forcing such access rights out of the parents hands, and into the media and classrooms under the guise of "equal rights". Psychoanalytic Review. Verified by Psychology Today. Journal of Juvenile Law. Robert Spitzer, reported findings from minute telephone interviews with men and 57 women who had sought help to change their sexual orientation. Update: May 18, Of course Can sexual orientation be changed terms gay, lesbian, bisexual, and transgendered have a socially constructed element as well because these terms did not exist two hundred years ago. Numerous reports and blog posts about the Arana article subsequently appeared on the Web, many of them highlighting Spitzer's Altoids strong peppermints smith kendon about retracting his paper. You can go through a number of different changes in short or long succession, and even revisit different orientations during different stages in Cwn life according to what's going on and how you perceive the world. Inthe General Assembly of the Norwegian Psychiatric Association overwhelmingly voted orienattion the following position statement on sexual orientation change therapy:.

My focus during therapy is to help people fortify their own inner strength.

  • According to a story in the May 19th New York Times , Robert Spitzer has written a letter to Kenneth Zucker, editor of the Archives of Sexual Behavior , in which he expresses his regrets for publishing his study of highly religious individuals who said their sexual orientation was changed by reparative therapy.
  • Sexual orientation change efforts SOCE are methods used in attempts to change the sexual orientation of homosexual and bisexual people to heterosexuality.
  • My focus during therapy is to help people fortify their own inner strength.
  • Verified by Psychology Today.

According to a story in the May 19th New York Times , Robert Spitzer has written a letter to Kenneth Zucker, editor of the Archives of Sexual Behavior , in which he expresses his regrets for publishing his study of highly religious individuals who said their sexual orientation was changed by reparative therapy.

After discussing my revised view of the study with Gabriel Arana, a reporter for American Prospect , and with Malcolm Ritter, an Associated Press science writer, I decided that I had to make public my current thinking about the study. Here it is. Basic Research Question. From the beginning it was: "can some version of reparative therapy enable individuals to change their sexual orientation from homosexual to heterosexual?

I offered several unconvincing reasons why it was reasonable to assume that the subject's reports of change were credible and not self-deception or outright lying. But the simple fact is that there was no way to determine if the subject's accounts of change were valid. I believe I owe the gay community an apology for my study making unproven claims of the efficacy of reparative therapy. I also apologize to any gay person who wasted time and energy undergoing some form of reparative therapy because they believed that I had proven that reparative therapy works with some "highly motivated" individuals.

Read Dr. Herek's critique of the study published with Spitzer's original article in the Archives of Sexual Behavior in It also discusses his interview with Dr. Robert Spitzer, reporting that Spitzer expressed a wish to retract his Archives of Sexual Behavior paper on highly religious individuals who said their sexual orientation was changed by reparative therapy. According to Arana's account, Spitzer said he spoke about writing a retraction to the editor of the Archives , who declined to publish it.

Numerous reports and blog posts about the Arana article subsequently appeared on the Web, many of them highlighting Spitzer's comments about retracting his paper. Many researchers and clinicians were puzzled by various aspects of the report about Spitzer. Was he saying that his original data were flawed, or does he now believe that his interpretation of the results was incorrect?

Why would Dr. Ken Zucker, editor of the Archives , be unwilling to publish a letter or comment by Spitzer about the controversial study? And why was Spitzer disclosing his misgivings about the study indirectly through an interviewer, rather than making them public in an article he wrote himself?

Some of these questions were answered in a blog entry by Dr. Alice Dreger. In it, she reports on her conversation with Dr. Zucker about Spitzer's retraction. If you're interested in the Spitzer paper, you'll appreciate the clarifications that Dr. Dreger provides. Attempts To Change Sexual Orientation.

Update: May 18, Update: April, Update: In response to recent public debates about interventions intended to change individuals' sexual orientation, the American Psychological Association created a Task Force on Appropriate Therapeutic Responses to Sexual Orientation which reviewed the relevant research literature. In , the Task Force reported that it found "serious methodological problems in this area of research, such that only a few studies met the minimal standards for evaluating whether psychological treatments, such as efforts to change sexual orientation, are effective" p.

Based on its review of the studies that met these standards, the Task Force concluded that "[E]nduring change to an individual's sexual orientation is uncommon. The participants in this body of research continued to experience same-sex attractions following SOCE [sexual orientation change efforts] and did not report significant change to other-sex attractions that could be empirically validated, though some showed lessened physiological arousal to all sexual stimuli.

Compelling evidence of decreased same-sex sexual behavior and of engagement in sexual behavior with the other sex was rare. Few studies provided strong evidence that any changes produced in laboratory conditions translated to daily life. Thus, the results of scientifically valid research indicate that it is unlikely that individuals will be able to reduce same-sex attractions or increase other-sex sexual attractions through SOCE" pp.

In addition, the Task Force found evidence to indicate that some individuals experienced harm or believed they had been harmed by these interventions. The Task Force report provides a detailed discussion of this topic and an extensive review of relevant research. In response to the Task Force report, the APA passed a resolution that stated, in part, "the American Psychological Association concludes that there is insufficient evidence to support the use of psychological interventions to change sexual orientation" and "the American Psychological Association concludes that the benefits reported by participants in sexual orientation change efforts can be gained through approaches that do not attempt to change sexual orientation.

Open bibliography in its own window. However, claims by the Family Research Council, Charles Socarides, Joseph Nicolosi, and others of "successful" conversions through reparative therapy are filled with methodological ambiguities and questionable results for reviews, see Haldeman, , ; see also Haldeman's review paper is available on the web in HTML and Adobe Acrobat PDF format.

They are also ethically suspect. Neither outcome is the same as adopting the complex set of attractions and feelings that constitute sexual orientation. Many interventions aimed at changing sexual orientation have succeeded only in reducing or eliminating homosexual behavior rather than in creating or increasing heterosexual attractions.

They have, in effect, deprived individuals of their capacity for sexual response to others. These "therapies" have often exposed their victims to electric shocks or nausea-producing drugs while showing them pictures of same-sex nudes such techniques appear to be less common today than in the past. Another problem in many published reports of "successful" conversion therapies is that the participants' initial sexual orientation was never adequately assessed. Many bisexuals have been mislabeled as homosexuals with the consequence that the "successes" reported for the conversions actually have occurred among bisexuals who were highly motivated to adopt a heterosexual behavior pattern.

Instead, only self reports of patients or therapists' subjective impressions have been available. More rigorous objective assessments e. Their studies have multiple flaws, including a lack of safeguards against bias and a lack of control groups. Rather than having patients evaluated by an independent third party who is unaware of which patients received the "reparative therapy," these studies are simply compilations of self-reports from psychoanalysts who are attempting to change their patients' sexual orientation and who are highly motivated to report "success".

And even if we accept these studies' claim that change has occurred, they do not provide any evidence that such change resulted from a particular therapy. Individuals who changed might well have done so anyway, even without therapy. Claims about the "success" of conversion therapies have appeared mainly in the mass media and on the World Wide Web, rather than in high-quality, peer-reviewed scientific journals.

A paper by Joseph Nicolosi and his colleagues was published in Psychological Reports. Psychological Reports is also the major outlet for Paul Cameron, the discredited antigay psychologist. As detailed elsewhere on this site , Psychological Reports has very low prestige among researchers and a low rejection rate. In addition, unlike other psychological journals, it charges its authors a fee to publish their papers. However, in May of , two papers on the topic of conversion therapies were presented at the American Psychiatric Association's annual convention.

One paper, by Dr. Robert Spitzer, reported findings from minute telephone interviews with men and 57 women who had sought help to change their sexual orientation. He found that 66 percent of the men and 44 percent of the women had achieved "good heterosexual functioning" and he attributed this to the interventions. The Spitzer study was immediately criticized on several grounds. For example, the sample consisted predominantly of activists recruited from "ex-gay" and anti-gay organizations.

Of those who participated, 78 percent had spoken publicly in favor of efforts to convert homosexuals to heterosexuality. This is a potential weakness of the study because activists are highly motivated to report that they successfully changed their sexual orientation.

Consequently, they may present an inaccurate impression of themselves to researchers. Spitzer took the activists' testimonials at face value, with no checks on the reliability or validity of their self-reports. In his relatively brief interviews with them, Dr.

Spitzer's study also appears to suffer from some of the same methodological flaws as the published studies discussed above. As noted above, including bisexuals in studies evaluating the outcomes of conversion therapies tends to inflate the proportion of "successes.

Spitzer did not claim that his findings could be generalized to the gay and lesbian population at large. Indeed, he was quoted in the New York Times as saying that, despite the findings from his study, the number of homosexuals who could successfully become heterosexual was likely to be "pretty low. The second APA paper, presented by Dr. Ariel Shidlo and Dr.

Michael Schroeder, reported findings from a study of homosexuals who were recruited through the Internet and direct mailings to groups advocating conversion therapy. Shidlo and Schroeder also reported that many respondents were harmed by the attempt to change. An Analogy. To better appreciate the potential flaws in Dr.

Spitzer's study, consider an analogous situation. Suppose a pharmaceutical company claims that a new vitamin supplement can change left-handed people to right-handers.

Mainstream medical organizations express their opposition to the vitamin, saying that it causes harm to many people who use it, and noting that there is no reason for left-handed people to try to change.

To test the drug company's claim, a researcher conducts brief telephone interviews with people who have used the product. He recruits most of his research participants from a list provided by the drug company of individuals who claim to have used the vitamin and have given public testimonials on behalf of the drug company. Many of those people say that they tried the vitamin because they felt miserable as left-handers in a right-handed world, and that they are now functioning as right-handers although many report occasional thoughts about using their left hand.

The researcher's data consist entirely of the one-time telephone interviews. He does no follow-up interviews to assess the consistency of the users' stories. Nor does he conduct face-to-face assessments with standardized measures to assess whether the vitamin users have actually become right-handed. Meanwhile, another research team reports data from a different study, in which they found that the vitamin supplement did not change most left-handers to right-handers, and that many people who tried the vitamin suffered serious negative side effects.

In such a situation, we would want to ask several questions. How reliable are the reports of vitamin users who were recruited through the drug company? What about the many people who were harmed by the vitamin? Why is it important for left-handers to become right-handed in the first place? We can raise similar questions about Dr. Spitzer's study. For those who did change, how do we know that they would not have changed their sexual orientation anyway, even without some form of therapy?

What about the many people who have been harmed by conversion therapies?

No way! Based on the available data, additional claims about the meaning of those outcomes are scientifically unsupported. He recruits most of his research participants from a list provided by the drug company of individuals who claim to have used the vitamin and have given public testimonials on behalf of the drug company. Spitzer's study. Hack , Triple J. SOCE have been controversial due to tensions between the values held by some right-wing faith-based organizations, on the one hand, and those held by LGBT rights organizations, human rights and civil rights organizations, and other faith-based organizations, as well as professional and scientific organizations, on the other. Thank you for your comments.

Can sexual orientation be changed

Can sexual orientation be changed

Can sexual orientation be changed

Can sexual orientation be changed

Can sexual orientation be changed. Post Comment

Ken Zucker, editor of the Archives , be unwilling to publish a letter or comment by Spitzer about the controversial study?

And why was Spitzer disclosing his misgivings about the study indirectly through an interviewer, rather than making them public in an article he wrote himself?

Some of these questions were answered in a blog entry by Dr. Alice Dreger. In it, she reports on her conversation with Dr. Zucker about Spitzer's retraction. If you're interested in the Spitzer paper, you'll appreciate the clarifications that Dr. Dreger provides. Attempts To Change Sexual Orientation. Update: May 18, Update: April, Update: In response to recent public debates about interventions intended to change individuals' sexual orientation, the American Psychological Association created a Task Force on Appropriate Therapeutic Responses to Sexual Orientation which reviewed the relevant research literature.

In , the Task Force reported that it found "serious methodological problems in this area of research, such that only a few studies met the minimal standards for evaluating whether psychological treatments, such as efforts to change sexual orientation, are effective" p.

Based on its review of the studies that met these standards, the Task Force concluded that "[E]nduring change to an individual's sexual orientation is uncommon. The participants in this body of research continued to experience same-sex attractions following SOCE [sexual orientation change efforts] and did not report significant change to other-sex attractions that could be empirically validated, though some showed lessened physiological arousal to all sexual stimuli.

Compelling evidence of decreased same-sex sexual behavior and of engagement in sexual behavior with the other sex was rare. Few studies provided strong evidence that any changes produced in laboratory conditions translated to daily life.

Thus, the results of scientifically valid research indicate that it is unlikely that individuals will be able to reduce same-sex attractions or increase other-sex sexual attractions through SOCE" pp.

In addition, the Task Force found evidence to indicate that some individuals experienced harm or believed they had been harmed by these interventions. The Task Force report provides a detailed discussion of this topic and an extensive review of relevant research. In response to the Task Force report, the APA passed a resolution that stated, in part, "the American Psychological Association concludes that there is insufficient evidence to support the use of psychological interventions to change sexual orientation" and "the American Psychological Association concludes that the benefits reported by participants in sexual orientation change efforts can be gained through approaches that do not attempt to change sexual orientation.

Open bibliography in its own window. However, claims by the Family Research Council, Charles Socarides, Joseph Nicolosi, and others of "successful" conversions through reparative therapy are filled with methodological ambiguities and questionable results for reviews, see Haldeman, , ; see also Haldeman's review paper is available on the web in HTML and Adobe Acrobat PDF format.

They are also ethically suspect. Neither outcome is the same as adopting the complex set of attractions and feelings that constitute sexual orientation. Many interventions aimed at changing sexual orientation have succeeded only in reducing or eliminating homosexual behavior rather than in creating or increasing heterosexual attractions. They have, in effect, deprived individuals of their capacity for sexual response to others.

These "therapies" have often exposed their victims to electric shocks or nausea-producing drugs while showing them pictures of same-sex nudes such techniques appear to be less common today than in the past. Another problem in many published reports of "successful" conversion therapies is that the participants' initial sexual orientation was never adequately assessed.

Many bisexuals have been mislabeled as homosexuals with the consequence that the "successes" reported for the conversions actually have occurred among bisexuals who were highly motivated to adopt a heterosexual behavior pattern. Instead, only self reports of patients or therapists' subjective impressions have been available. More rigorous objective assessments e. Their studies have multiple flaws, including a lack of safeguards against bias and a lack of control groups.

Rather than having patients evaluated by an independent third party who is unaware of which patients received the "reparative therapy," these studies are simply compilations of self-reports from psychoanalysts who are attempting to change their patients' sexual orientation and who are highly motivated to report "success".

And even if we accept these studies' claim that change has occurred, they do not provide any evidence that such change resulted from a particular therapy. Individuals who changed might well have done so anyway, even without therapy. Claims about the "success" of conversion therapies have appeared mainly in the mass media and on the World Wide Web, rather than in high-quality, peer-reviewed scientific journals.

A paper by Joseph Nicolosi and his colleagues was published in Psychological Reports. Psychological Reports is also the major outlet for Paul Cameron, the discredited antigay psychologist. As detailed elsewhere on this site , Psychological Reports has very low prestige among researchers and a low rejection rate. In addition, unlike other psychological journals, it charges its authors a fee to publish their papers. However, in May of , two papers on the topic of conversion therapies were presented at the American Psychiatric Association's annual convention.

One paper, by Dr. Robert Spitzer, reported findings from minute telephone interviews with men and 57 women who had sought help to change their sexual orientation. He found that 66 percent of the men and 44 percent of the women had achieved "good heterosexual functioning" and he attributed this to the interventions. The Spitzer study was immediately criticized on several grounds.

For example, the sample consisted predominantly of activists recruited from "ex-gay" and anti-gay organizations. Of those who participated, 78 percent had spoken publicly in favor of efforts to convert homosexuals to heterosexuality.

This is a potential weakness of the study because activists are highly motivated to report that they successfully changed their sexual orientation. Consequently, they may present an inaccurate impression of themselves to researchers.

Spitzer took the activists' testimonials at face value, with no checks on the reliability or validity of their self-reports.

In his relatively brief interviews with them, Dr. Spitzer's study also appears to suffer from some of the same methodological flaws as the published studies discussed above. As noted above, including bisexuals in studies evaluating the outcomes of conversion therapies tends to inflate the proportion of "successes.

Spitzer did not claim that his findings could be generalized to the gay and lesbian population at large. Indeed, he was quoted in the New York Times as saying that, despite the findings from his study, the number of homosexuals who could successfully become heterosexual was likely to be "pretty low.

The second APA paper, presented by Dr. Ariel Shidlo and Dr. Michael Schroeder, reported findings from a study of homosexuals who were recruited through the Internet and direct mailings to groups advocating conversion therapy. Shidlo and Schroeder also reported that many respondents were harmed by the attempt to change. An Analogy. To better appreciate the potential flaws in Dr.

Spitzer's study, consider an analogous situation. Suppose a pharmaceutical company claims that a new vitamin supplement can change left-handed people to right-handers. Mainstream medical organizations express their opposition to the vitamin, saying that it causes harm to many people who use it, and noting that there is no reason for left-handed people to try to change. To test the drug company's claim, a researcher conducts brief telephone interviews with people who have used the product.

He recruits most of his research participants from a list provided by the drug company of individuals who claim to have used the vitamin and have given public testimonials on behalf of the drug company.

The third city in the United States to do so. On December 14, Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania passed a bill by a vote of , that bans conversion therapy on minors from January 1, On December 24, Lake Worth, Florida bans conversion therapy on minors, by a vote of on December 24, and went into effect on 1 January On April 7, , New Mexico became the seventh U.

On May 10, , Connecticut became the eighth U. On May 17, , Nevada became the ninth U. The law goes into effect on 1 January On July 22, , Rhode Island became the tenth U. From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia.

For the therapy, see conversion therapy. Relevant discussion may be found on the talk page. Ideas in this article should be expressed in an original manner. August Learn how and when to remove this template message. This section needs expansion. You can help by adding to it. March This section may lend undue weight to certain ideas, incidents, or controversies. Please help improve it by rewriting it in a balanced fashion that contextualizes different points of view.

March Learn how and when to remove this template message. See also: Aversion therapy. Main article: Conversion therapy. Main article: Ex-gay movement. See also: Relationship counseling. See also: Religion and homosexuality. See also: Persecution of homosexuals in Nazi Germany and the Holocaust and Nazi human experimentation. This section contains too many or overly lengthy quotations for an encyclopedic entry. Please help improve the article by presenting facts as a neutrally-worded summary with appropriate citations.

Consider transferring direct quotations to Wikiquote. Main article: List of U. September 28, American Psychological Association. Archived PDF from the original on June 15, Retrieved July 28, Archived from the original on Retrieved 26 May Royal College of Psychiatrists. Archived from the original PDF on 27 August Retrieved 8 July Herek, Ph. Archived from the original PDF on 6 August Retrieved 28 July Gay American history: lesbians and gay men in the U.

New York: Crowell. Texas Medical Journal. Journal of Mental Science. National Christian League for Promotion of Purity. Pudic Nerve Section Fails Therapeutically". Psychosomatic Medicine. Psychology Report. Psychological Bulletin. Cures: A Gay Man's Odyssey. New York: Plume. Diseases of the Nervous System. Pennsylvania Medical Journal.

Journal of Social Therapy. Transactions of the New Hampshire Medical Society. Journal of the National Medical Association. Psychoanalytic Review. Yale Law Journal. The Atlantic. J Marital Fam Ther. The Independent Online Edition. Retrieved Virtual Mentor. Professional Psychology: Research and Practice. Unpublished master's thesis, University of Utah, A Short Textbook of Psychiatry illustrated ed.

Jaypee Brothers Publishers. Being a homosexual in India". Archived from the original on 30 November While social attitudes are slowly changing [in India] and the anti-sodomy law is being challenged, mental health professionals in many places still offer therapy to homosexuals. February American Psychiatric Association. May Archived from the original PDF on Retrieved 6 May The Bilerico Project.

Retrieved 1 April Dean; Potts, Richard W. June Psychological Reports. The Times Online. Archived from the original on 6 January Archived from the original on 14 December J Sex Marital Ther. Chattanooga Times Free Press. Archived from the original on 9 July Christian Post. Overcoming homosexuality. Retrieved August 1, A History of Homosexuality in Europe Vol.

II: Berlin, London, Paris, Algora Publishing. Jewish Virtual Library. World Health Organization. Bulletin of the World Health Organization. American Medical Association.

Frankowski MD. American Academy of Pediatrics. Archived from the original on 6 February Archived from the original on September 26, Retrieved January 16, Indian Journal of Psychiatry. People's Union for Civil Liberties. Associated Press. Worthington; Clinton W. Anderson Retrieved 20 November Clinical Social Work Journal. The Counseling Psychologist. Winter Washington Blade. Love in Court: Gay-to-straight ministry and the state go to court.

Memphis Flyer. Journal of Juvenile Law. Women's Law Journal No way! New Statesman. Olaf College". Archived from the original on 5 August Retrieved 13 July Archived from the original on 8 July Just the Facts Coalition. Baptist Press. Archived from the original on May 16, SX News.

Archived from the original on August 25, Retrieved February 12, ABC News. February 9, Retrieved July 13, Hack , Triple J. Australian Broadcasting Corporation. February 2, SBS News. Retrieved March 17, News Corp Australia. The Age. QNews Magazine. Rio de Janeiro , Brazil. Paulo" [Psychologist realizing 'treatment' for homosexuality might have her professional register shot down, informs Folha de S.

Paulo] in Portuguese. Retrieved 1 August A Capa. Toronto Sun. Hispanically Speaking News. Archived from the original on 12 December Retrieved 17 January The Huffington Post. The Advocate. Archived from the original on 10 June Malta Today. Archived from the original on 17 June Retrieved 18 June Marsa : iNews Malta. Archived from the original on 29 November Pink News. Archived from the original on 6 December The Local. July 12, December 7, Archived from the original on December 23, Retrieved December 23, BBC News.

Retrieved 20 December San Francisco Chronicle. Retrieved October 1, NBC News. Archived from the original on August 29, Retrieved August 29, New York Times. Senate sends bill banning gay-to-straight 'conversion therapy' to Christie". June 27, Huffington Post. August 19, November 9, Dallas Morning News. Retrieved 23 September Human Rights Campaign. March 16, Retrieved 21 August Oregon Live. May 7, American Counseling Association. December 2,

Facts About Changing Sexual Orientation

A new study has shown that traditional labels of 'gay', 'bisexual' and 'straight' do not capture the full range of human sexuality, and whether a person is attracted to the same, or opposite sex can change over time. The study, published in the Journal of Sex Research , analysed surveys from around 12, students, and found that substantial changes in attractions, partners, and sexual identity are common from late adolescence to the early 20s, and from the early 20s to the late 20s—indicating that sexual orientation development continues long past adolescence into adulthood.

The results also show distinct development pathways for men and women, with female sexuality being more fluid over time. However, that may oversimplify the situation. For example, someone may self-identify as heterosexual while also reporting relationships with same-sex partners.

In order to take all of the dimensions of sexuality into account over time, Kaestle used data from the National Longitudinal Study of Adolescent to Adult Health, which tracked American students from the ages of into their late twenties and early thirties. The results showed that some people's sexual orientation experiences vary over time, and the traditional three categories of 'straight', 'bisexual' and 'gay' are insufficient to describe the diverse patterns of attraction , partners, and identity over time.

The results indicated that such developmental patterns are better described in nine categories—differing for both men and women. Straight people made up the largest group and showed the least change in sexual preferences over time.

Interestingly, men were more likely than women to be straight—almost nine out of 10 men, compared to less than three-quarters of women.

Men and women in the middle of the sexuality spectrum, as well as those in the 'emerging' gay and lesbian groups showed the most changes over time. However, this number dropped to almost zero by their late 20s, by which time the women reported only being attracted to the opposite sex. Overall, women showed greater fluidity in sexual preference over time. They were more likely one in six to be located in the middle of the sexuality continuum and to be bisexual.

Fewer than one in 25 men fell in the middle of the spectrum; they were more likely to be at either end of the spectrum, as either 'straight' or 'emerging gay'. Relatively few women were classed as 'emerging lesbian'. Kaestle explains that the study demonstrates young adulthood is still a very dynamic time for sexual orientation development,.

Importantly, although the study found nine categories of sexual orientation development, limitations in the statistical methods used mean that more categories could exist.

The names of the categories are also in no way meant to replace or contradict any person's current self-labelled identity. Rather, Kaestle hopes that these findings will help researchers in the future to better understand how a range of sexual orientation experiences and patterns over time can shape sexual minorities' experience of distinct health disadvantages, and the effects of discrimination.

Explore further. Please sign in to add a comment. Registration is free, and takes less than a minute. Read more. Your feedback will go directly to Science X editors. Thank you for taking your time to send in your valued opinion to Science X editors. You can be assured our editors closely monitor every feedback sent and will take appropriate actions.

Your opinions are important to us. We do not guarantee individual replies due to extremely high volume of correspondence. E-mail the story Sexuality continues to change and develop well into adulthood, finds study Your friend's email Your email I would like to subscribe to Science X Newsletter.

Learn more Your name Note Your email address is used only to let the recipient know who sent the email. Neither your address nor the recipient's address will be used for any other purpose. The information you enter will appear in your e-mail message and is not retained by Medical Xpress in any form. You can unsubscribe at any time and we'll never share your details to third parties. More information Privacy policy. This site uses cookies to assist with navigation, analyse your use of our services, and provide content from third parties.

By using our site, you acknowledge that you have read and understand our Privacy Policy and Terms of Use. Home Health. May 2, Credit: CC0 Public Domain. More information: Christine E. DOI: This document is subject to copyright. Apart from any fair dealing for the purpose of private study or research, no part may be reproduced without the written permission. The content is provided for information purposes only.

Attacking metastatic breast cancer with sound 13 minutes ago. Related Stories. Lesbian and bi women at increased risk of being overweight Feb 20, May 09, Dec 02, Even with health insurance, lesbian, gay and bisexual adults are more likely to delay medical care Oct 17, Feb 20, Feb 13, Recommended for you. Too much salt might make you gain weight 1 hour ago.

Workplace sales ban on sugared drinks shows positive health effects 2 hours ago. User comments. May 02, People only ever have sex because they want to reproduce, whether they know it or not. The human tropical animal evolved in an environment of maximum attrition, and its repro rate developed in concert. As soon as we began using weapons however, the equation changed.

We began to hunt the predators that had been keeping our numbers in check. And overpopulation has been our primary problem ever since. While neither our desire to procreate nor the potential rate we can do so has changed, we have managed to compensate both socially and biologically for this endemic problem.

Socially we have at times successfully separated the act from the potential result. And biologically our urges have often turned to nonprocreative alternatives, perhaps triggered epigenetically by mothers perceiving that her next child might be born into a tribe that has run out of food and space.

Report Block. Normally I'm not with Otto here, but that is a pretty point. I would also point out that in our teens and 20s we can have sex with just about anything animal vegetable or mineral Full hormone pump but by the time the 30s roll around you have either committed to one type of relationship or at the very least honed in on what you find the most pleasurable, long term.

You may also have generally fewer opportunities for partners because of reduced forced social interactions. Like school and college. May 03, I know I certainly feel gayer every day. Sign in. Forgot Password Registration. What do you think about this particular story? Your message to the editors. Your email only if you want to be contacted back. Send Feedback.

E-mail the story Sexuality continues to change and develop well into adulthood, finds study. Your friend's email. Your email.

I would like to subscribe to Science X Newsletter. Learn more. Your name. Note Your email address is used only to let the recipient know who sent the email. Your message. Your Privacy This site uses cookies to assist with navigation, analyse your use of our services, and provide content from third parties.

Ok More Information. E-mail newsletter. It appears that you are currently using Ad Blocking software. What are the consequences?

Can sexual orientation be changed

Can sexual orientation be changed

Can sexual orientation be changed